For her, the oppressed woman makes herself a thing and tries to make herself prey to reduce man to her carnal passivity in which she occupies herself perpetually. Au contraire, the emancipated woman is one who wishes to be active, a taker and refuses the passivity man means to impose on her; all of which are masculine values31 She points out that this emancipation failed to happen as both sexes failed to recognise. The women dream to perpetuate their submission (by seeking salvation through passivity) and men, their identification (of themselves as superiors, through a devaluation of femininity). Women are, since childhood, taught to praise lofty values of love, devotion, submission; they are deterred of taking charge of their own life, thus allowing themselves to be reliant upon their father, lover, brother, husband and. Thus, in saying so, she rejects the idea that the nature of women is a universal given. She is just one step away from Judith Butler (who argues that gender is performative) in saying that the woman is constructed. Thus, a social evolution is the only means through which woman can shed their old skin and cut her own new clothes.32 Both love and sex can be great tools of transcendence to emancipation as Simone de beauvoir argues.
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The only solution to these problems is for the woman to defy them all, to stand firmly on her own ground and to insist upon her own unrestricted freedom, to listen to the voice of her nature, whether it call for lifes greatest treasure, love. Thus, women need to emancipate themselves from emancipation, as Goldman puts it25. Goldman acknowledges that the position of the working girl is far better than her higher-class counterpart; as the latter is plagued by a hollow, dull, restless and incomplete life. Thus, emancipation should assure all humans the right to love with the right to be loved.26 Goldman proved to be instrumental in pointing out the loopholes in First wave feminism. She was life highly influential in the second wave, as many feminists now broadened the idea of Woman, her oppression and her emancipation. Simone de beuvoirs Second Sex The second wave of Feminism began in the post-modern era and Simone de beauvoir was one of Europes leading feminists.27 She was politically very active and was closely associated with jean-paul Sartre. Her book the second Sex is full of details of her private life, which she had no hesitation in making public. She shifted the discourse into new directions, arguing that the conceptualization of women was in itself patriarchal. They were defined (as subjects, other ) with relation to men (as the One, absolute).28 This has not allowed women their emancipation. This is because women have been unable to break their relationship with men; they have no separate consciousness, shared past, history or religion.29 Men have further tried to prove how women are subordinate through the means of philosophy, law, religion, literature and science.30 Thus, she.
However, the first wave of Feminism was nearing its twilight. Goldman highlighted its problems and for being a non-conformist to the movement in her time, she was denounced by many. However, her analyses proved to be instrumental a few decades later. Goldman rejects the movement saying that emancipation of women turned into a new form of oppression. She argued that the movement had been reduced to a battle of the sexes and stood for a reckless life of lust and sin, regardless of society, religion and morality. Its scope was too narrow to permit boundless love and ecstasydeep emotion of the true womanin freedom.21 It merely involved a formal emancipation; only the overt shackles best had been broken by it, further creating newer, inner shackles. Thus, she argues, the emancipated woman is an artificial being22. She has been robbed of her essence, emptied her soul and not allowed the inner fetters to be broken.23 She is not trained to overcome her historical restraints. Thus, she is unable to match the male counterpart.
Also, because neither owns any property, the notion of salon inheritance stands void.18. Thus, a social revolution, Proletarian in nature, can achieve equality of sexes. Full freedom of marriage biography can only be established through the abolition of capitalist production and private property. Although he hints that the real nature of monogamy would come out after the revolution, he declares that it will only be determined by a generation that has grown up without knowing private property and unequal contracts of marriage ties.19. Engels20 and his ideas inspired the wave of feminism across the globe in the 19th and early 20th centuries. However, there were certain problems that arose within the same. Emma goldmans Idea of False Emancipation. Emma goldman wrote her essay, the Tragedy of Womans Emancipation in 1906. By this time, feminism had gained a stronghold in politics.
He adds to marxs idea of class antagonism in marriage that. The first class oppositioncoincides with the development of the antagonism between man and woman in monogamous marriage, and the first class oppression coincides with that of the female sex by the male.13. Elaborating on when this antagonism first appeared, Engels traces it back to the beginning of settled agri culture. It is here that the notion of private property originated, leading to social organization on the basis of monogamous marriage. This monogamous marriage, he further states, led to the unconditional slavery of woman, with the main purpose being to produce children of undisputed paternitybecause these children are later to come into their fathers property as his natural heirs.14. And thus, monogamy turned into perpetual prostitutional slavery for women, who subsequently became adulterous, whereas the man gave himself to hetaerism.15 Although monogamous marriage has always been contractual, it is determined by either families or by class.16. True choice,17 as Engels puts it, is only exercised amongst the Proletarian class. Sexual love is the norm amongst workers; both parties are more or less equal. They are free from inequalities of wealth as both sexes work as breadwinners.
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She finds emancipation in plot non-private and non-domestic education. Her idea of a perfect education is one that is an exercise of understandingto strengthen the mind and form the heart8. This mind would end blind obedience (to patriarchy).9. Wollstonecrafts liberated woman would be one who exercises virtue, not sourcing it through her male counterparts, but on her own. She would be rid of all epithets of weakness10, manners and elegance, which are inferior to virtue.11 And only thus can an ideal world be created, one where Truth is the same for both man and woman and the principles that govern their duties are.
Friedrich Engels and Class Oppression, wollstonecraft was arguably the first feminist, in the modern sense of the word. It is natural that her explanations and ideas would have certain loopholes and/or vestiges of the patriarchal past she was trying to come out. This does not mean that her theories proved to be worthless. The later feminists based their ideas upon her arguments, especially in the 19th century. One of them was Friedrich Engels. In his book, the Origin of the family, private Property and the State (1884 Engels brings, for the first time, class dynamics into gender relations.
Mary wollstonecraft and the false system of Education. Mary wollstonecraft was a british feminist author, writing during the French. Her book, a vindication of the rights of Woman (1792) came as a response to the report in Frances National Assembly by Charles maurice de talleyrand-Périgords. The report argued for a mere domestic education for women, along the beliefs of the French philosophes that women must derive virtue from their relations with men. In critique, wollstonecraft did for woman what rousseau tried to do for the natural man and paine for the rights of man.2. She postulates that education formalizes patriarchy.
Wollstonecraft points out that the female is naturally inferior to the male in terms of strength. However, a false system of education deprives women of their right to virtue3, by not allowing them sufficient strength of mind4. They are renderedinsignificant objects of desire5 through false-education which begins right from their childhood as they are taught by the example of their mothers characteristics like cunningshortness of temperoutward obedience6. She thus develops the idea of an oppressed woman, equating her with a soldier. Soldiers, as well as women, practice the minor virtues with punctilious politenessthe difference between them arises from the superior advantage of liberty, which enables the former to see more lifeThey were taught to please and they only live to please.7. Thus, wollstonecraft attacks rousseau openly; who argues that obedience is the grand lesson of virtue for women.
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But a marked change has been seen apple in the last couple of decades, as the market has incorporated the agenda of feminism in itself. A formal denial of patriarchy is now part of the dominant discourse. But one must be weary and unmask the patriarchal vestiges that still survive. It is in this light that one should ask the above question again. This paper looks to trace three broad themes in the scholarship of feminism: the conceptualization of women as a socio-political category, the various ideas of womens oppression, and the idea of emancipation. In particular, the work of four influential scholars—Mary wollstonecraft, Friedrich Engels, Emma goldman and Simone de beauvoir—is used to provide a brief summary of the subject and its development. Each provides foundational ideas in the scholarship of feminism, in addition to representing the shifting discourse in the two major waves of feminism in modern history. Excerpts of the writings of each of the aforementioned scholars are examined from Alice. Feminist Papers: from Adams to de beauvoir1.
Is she a mother-daughter-wife-sister? Or is she more than that? What is her role in society and how does it play out in various institutions? Does she really face oppression? Feminism really an answer to her problems? And does she need emancipation? Who will bring about this emancipation and how? These are certain basic questions that need to be asked again and again in every epoch. The patriarchal superstructure has adapted to the various material changes in the last years.
company minimizes risks and maximizes opportunities" (futue500.org, 2004). Areas of Business That needs ImprovementInventory and ManufacturingThere is a lack of automation in the processes currently in place at receiving, manufacturing, and shipping. There is a need for more accurate methods of data input and inventory update. In order to ensure consistency of operations, effective quality control and efficient inventory management, a solution is needed to integrate and automate the many manual processes associated with the current system. Finance and AccountingDifferent finance and accounting systems are used throughout the organization; often at times data files require conversion after transfer and the overall processes are labor-intensive and costly. Sales and marketingThe firm has historical records in many disparate databases as well as in paper files and microfiche and would. Who is a woman? What does it mean to be a woman?
The following is an paper example: Improving the governmental Policy decision making in Mumbai executive summary. It has been observed that the policy decisions have been made by few governors and chief officers in the district five of Mumbai without any involvement of the local populations in the past years, and people living in the district are expressing disagreements and looking. In this project, we propose to conduct a survey to collect local populations opinions of the governmental policy approval procedures, and to promote the local government to consider local peoples voices based on the survey. The project will eventually lead to the conversations and discussions between the local government and the populations to improve the current situation. This project is proposed for two years. Project Proposal SummaryPurpose and Objective of the ProjectThe main purpose of the proposed project is to make upgrades and improvements to the riordan information systems and workflow processes in order to make riordan Manufacturing a more efficient and productive organization. Computer and information systems technology will be implemented in making changes to the inventory and manufacturing system, human resources information system (hris customer relationship management system (CRM) and the finance and accounting (F A) departments at all the different locations. Stakeholders Associated with the ProjectThe principle stakeholders that will benefit from an implementation of the proposed project are as follows:ãâemployees - will have access to improved methods of data input, which should make their work easier. Ãâmanagement officials- will be better able to make strategic decisions relating to the general operation of the company.
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Continued from the main page, the executive summary will be a brief introduction and justification of the proposal which needs to be shorter and more summarized when compared to an abstract. Most importantly, it should contain the problem (development challenge) which is the target of the project, and the solution to the problem in the proposed project; and other parts of the text will be written for enhancing and explaining the purposes of the two components. The attractive thinking will be maintained here to give reasons to the donors to finish reading of the whole proposal. Ideally, a good summary will start with the problem and its impact to the society, the proposed solutions to the problem and their word expected results, and the goal which the project will finally reach. A brief time frame will also help the donors to understand the need of the project. We may call the content of the executive summary as Why, how, and What: why you want to start the project to resolve what problem; how you plan to resolve the problem; and what goal you want to reach at the end of the project. If it is uneasy to start writing a summary, you may try to use only one sentence to summarize each of those important sections in the proposal, and then try to organize them together to make the main problem and its solutions more clear and. You may comment here that how competitive your solutions are compared to other existing projects. And then add in the goal and the time frame at the end.