The computer-controlled fire control system can acquire and lock onto moving targets, even airborne helicopters, while the tank itself is on the move. It includes line-of-sight stabilisation in two axes, a second-generation television sight and automatic thermal target tracker, a laser range finder, an improved thermal night vision system and a dynamic cant angle indicator. An Amcoram lws-2 laser warning receiver notifies the crew of threats like laser-guided anti-tank missiles 31, which can fire smoke grenade launchers to obscure the tank from the laser beam. 28 Electromagnetic warning against radar illumination is also installed. 28 The tank carries the Israeli Elbit Systems bms (Battle management System; Hebrew: a centralised system that takes data from tracked units and uavs in theater, displays it on color screens, and distributes it in encrypted form to all other units equipped with bms. The merkava iv has been designed for rapid repair and fast replacement of damaged armour, with modular armour that can be easily removed and replaced.
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Because rear armor is thinner, chains with iron balls are attached in order to detonate projectiles before they hit the main armored hull. 7 It is the first contemporary tank with no loaders hatch in the turret roof, because any aperture in the turret roof increases risk of penetration by atgms. 28 Tank rounds are stored in individual fire-proof canisters, which reduce immigration the chance of cookoffs in a fire inside the tank. The turret is electrically-powered (hydraulic turrets use flammable liquid that ignites if the turret is penetrated) 29 and "dry no active rounds are stored. Some features, such as hull shaping, exterior non-reflective paints ( radar cross-section reduction and shielding for engine heat plumes mixing with air particles (reduced infrared signature ) to confuse enemy thermal imagers, were carried over from the iai lavi program of the Israeli air Force. The mark iv includes the larger 120 mm main gun of the previous versions, but can fire a wider variety of ammunition, including heat and sabot rounds like the apfsds kinetic energy penetrator, using an electrical semi-automatic revolving magazine for 10 rounds. It also includes a much larger.7 mm machine gun for anti-vehicle operations (most commonly used against technicals ). 30 The mark iv has the Israeli-designed "tsaws ( T racks, s prings, a nd W heels s ystem caterpillar track system, called " mazkom " ( Hebrew :, by troops. This system is designed to reduce track-shedding under the harsh basalt rock conditions of Lebanon and the golan heights. The model has a new fire-control system, the El-Op Knight Mark.
Upgraded and strengthened tracks (built by caterpillar, designed in Israel Installation of the r-ows. Merkava mark iv edit merkava mark iv the mark iv is the most recent variant of the merkava tank that has been in development since 1999 and production since 2004. The upgrade's development was announced in an business October 1999 edition of the bamachaneh At the camp military publication. However, the merkava mark iii remained in production until 2003. The first Merkava ivs were in production in limited numbers by the end of 2004. 26 When ammunition is unloaded the tank can carry up to 8 dismounted soldiers or 3 stretchers. Troops enter and leave the vehicle through the rear hatch. 27 Removable modular armor, from the merkava mark iiid, is used on all sides, including the top and a v-shaped belly armor pack for the underside. This modular system is designed to allow for damaged tanks to be rapidly repaired and returned to the field.
The demonstration concludes with the throwing a green smoke hand grenade (1 m 16 s). The merkava mark iii was introduced in December 1989 and was in production until 2003. As of 2016, the merkava iii is by far the most numerous tank in frontline idf service. Compared to the merkava ii, it has upgrades to the drivetrain, powertrain, armament, and electronic systems. The most prominent addition was the incorporation of the locally developed imi 120 mm gun. 23 This gun and a larger 1,200 horsepower (890 kW) diesel engine increased the total weight of the tank to 65 tonnes (143,000 lb but the larger engine increased the maximum cruising speed to 60 km/h (37 mph). 24 The turret was re-engineered for movement independent of the tank chassis, allowing it to track a target regardless of the tank's movement. Many other changes were made, including: External two-way telephone for secure communications between the tank crew and dismounted infantry, upgraded ammunition storage containers to minimize ammunition cook-off, thesis addition of laser designators, incorporation of the kasag modular armor system, designed for rapid replacement and repair. Dor-Dalet edit The last generation of the mark iii class was the mark iiid dor-Dalet (Hebrew: fourth Generation which included several components as prototypes to be introduced in the mark.
Updated meteorological sensors, crosswind analyzers, and thermographic optics and image intensifiers gave greater visibility and battlefield awareness. Newer versions of the original Mark ii were designated: Mark iib, with thermal optics and unspecified updates to the fire control system. Mark iic, with more armor on the top of the turret to improve protection against attack from the air. Mark iid, with modular composite armor on the chassis and turret, allowing rapid replacement of damaged armor. In 2015 the idf had begun a plan to take the old models out of storage and repurpose them as heavy armored personnel carriers. Cannons, turrets, and spaces used to store tank shells inside the hull were removed to create a personnel carrier that outperforms the lighter M113 apc. Converting hundreds of Mark ii chassis provides a low-cost way to upgrade support units' capabilities to perform medical, logistical, and rescue missions., after 33 years of service, the last conscripted brigade to operate merkava iis was scheduled to transition to merkava iii and Merkava. 22 Merkava mark iii edit variants of the merkava mark iii merkava iiid baz fires the baz fire-control system increases the merkava's accuracy and lethality merkava iii shooting a shell, fn mag and smoke grenade. It then turns on the smoke screen system.
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Ten soldiers or walking wounded could enter and exit through the rear peoplesoft door. After the war, many adjustments and additions were noted and designed, the most important being that the 60 mm mortar needed to be installed within the hull and engineered for remote firing—a valuable feature that the Israelis had initially encountered on their Centurion Mk3s with their. 19 A shot trap was found beneath the rear of the turret bustle, where a well-placed shot could jam the turret completely. The installation of chain netting to disperse and destroy rocket propelled grenades and anti-tank rockets before impacting the primary armor increased survivability. Merkava mark ii forgiveness edit The merkava mark ii the mark ii was first introduced into general service in April 1983.
While fundamentally the same as the merkava mark i, it incorporated numerous small adjustments as a result of the previous year's incursion into lebanon. The new tank was optimized for urban warfare and low intensity conflicts, with a weight and engine no greater than the mark. 20 The mark ii used the same 105 mm main gun and.62 mm machine guns as the mark i, but the 60 mm mortar was redesigned during construction to be located within the hull and configured for remote firing to remove the need to expose the operator. An Israeli-designed automatic transmission and increased fuel storage for increased range was installed on all further Mark iis. Anti-rocket netting was fitted for increased survivability against infantry equipped with anti-tank rockets. Many minor improvements were made to the fire-control system.
The mark iv's top road speed is 64 km/h. Citation needed Protection edit The merkava is protected by an Israeli-developed composite armor. Advanced models include modular armor design which enables ordnance crews to replace only the damaged part. Additional sloped armor modules can be installed on the turret for additional protection. Automative and mechanical systems serve as a second layer of defense to the crew, in case the main armor is penetrated. Ammunition is stored in fireproof canisters for more protection and to reduce the risk of exploding ammo when hit.
The merkava mk 4M is equipped with the Trophy active protection system, called "Windbreaker" ( ) in Hebrew. The Trophy aps is an Israeli-developed battle proven hard-kill defense system. Variants edit merkava mark i edit The mark i, operational since 1978, is the original design created as a result of Israel Tal's decision, and was fabricated and designed for mass production. The mark i weighed 63 tonnes and had a 900 horsepower (670 kW) diesel engine, with a power-to-weight ratio of 14 hp/ton. It was armed with the 105 millimeter M68 main gun (a licensed copy of the British royal Ordnance L7 two.62 mm machine guns for anti-infantry defense, 18 and a 60 mm mortar mounted externally, with the mortar operator not completely protected by the tank's hull. The general design borrows the tracks and road wheels from the British Centurion tank, which had seen extensive use during the yom Kippur war and performed well in the rocky terrain of the golan. The merkava was first used in combat during the 1982 Lebanon War, where Israel deployed 180 units. Although they were a success, the M113 apcs that accompanied them were found to have several defects and were withdrawn. Merkavas were converted into makeshift apcs or armored ambulances by taking out the palleted ammunition racks in storage.
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Urdan Industries assembles and constructs the hull, drive- and powertrains, and turret assemblies; Soltam manufactures the 60 mm internal mortar; Elta designs and manufactures the electronic sensors and infrared optics; Elbit delivers the ballistics computer, fire-control system (FCS) and electric turret and gun control system;. Bental Industries, a tat technologies subsidiary, produced the brushless motors used in the mark iv's turret and gun control system. 17 General characteristics edit merkava mk 4M, 2016 Firepower edit The merkava mark i and ii were armed with a 105 literature mm M68 gun. The mark iii, mark iii dor Dalet baz kassag, and the mark iv are armed with an imi 120 mm smoothbore gun which can fire all versions of western 120 mm smooth bore tank ammunition. Each model of the merkava has two roof mounted.62 mm machine guns for use by the commander and loader and another mounted co-axially with the main gun. A 60 mm mortar is also fitted for firing smoke rounds or suppressing dug-in infantry anti-tank teams. All Merkava tanks are fitted with a remote-controlled M2 Browning.50 heavy machine gun, aligned with the main gun and controlled from within the turret. The.50 machine gun has proven to be useful and effective in asymmetric warfare. Mobility edit The tank's 1,500 horsepower turbocharged diesel engine was designed by mtu and is manufactured under license by l-3 Communication Combat Propulsion Systems (formerly general Dynamics).
The first Merkava. 1 tanks were supplied to the idf human in April 1979, nearly nine years after the decision to produce the merkava. 1 tank was taken. Primary contractors edit The lead organization for system integration of the merkava's main components is Israel Military Industries (IMI). The Israeli Ordnance corps are responsible for final Merkava assembly. More than 90 of the merkava 4 tank's components are produced locally in Israel by Israeli defense industries. 15 Contributors to the vehicle include: imi manufactures the 105 mm and 120 mm main guns and their ammunition; tgl sp industries ltd develop and production of the road Wheels.
collaborated to adapt the United Kingdom's Chieftain tank that had entered British Army service in 1966. 13 However, in 1969, Britain decided not to sell the tank to Israel for political reasons. 14 Israel Tal, who was serving as a brigade commander after the suez crisis, restarted plans to produce an Israeli-made tank, drawing on lessons from the 1973 Yom Kippur War, in which Israeli forces were outnumbered by those of the middle east's Arab nations. 14 by 1974, initial designs were completed and prototypes were built. After a brief set of trials, work began to retool the tel hashomer ordnance depot for full-time development and construction. After the new facilities were completed, the merkava was announced to the public in the International Defense review periodical. The first official images of the tank were then released to the American periodical Armed Forces journal on may 4, 1977. The idf officially adopted the tank in December 1978.
Design criteria include rapid repair of battle damage, survivability, cost-effectiveness and off-road performance. Following the model of contemporary self-propelled howitzers, the turret assembly is located closer to the rear than in most main battle tanks. With the engine in front, this layout is intended to grant additional protection against a frontal attack, so as to absorb some of the force of incoming shells, 7 especially for the personnel in the main hull, such as the driver. It also creates more space in the rear of the tank that allows increased storage capacity and a rear entrance to the main crew compartment allowing easy access under enemy fire. This allows the tank to be used as a platform for medical disembarkation, a forward command and control station, and an infantry fighting vehicle. The rear entrance's clamshell-style doors provide overhead protection when off- and on-loading cargo and personnel. It was reportedly decided shortly before presentation the beginning of the 2006 Lebanon War that the merkava line would be discontinued within four years. However, on november 7, 2006, haaretz reported that an, israeli general staff assessment had ruled of the merkava mark iv that "if properly deployed, the tank can provide its crew with better protection than in the past and deferred the decision on discontinuing the line. 9, on August 16, 2013, Israeli defense minister, moshe ya'alon announced the decision to resume production of the merkava main battle tank for the idf armored Corps.
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For the religious/mystical connotations of the word, see. The, merkava hebrew year : ipa :mɛʁ. Kava, " chariot is a main battle tank used by the, israel Defense forces. The tank began development in 1970, 6 and entered official service in 1978. Four main variants of the tank have been deployed. It was first used extensively in the 1982 Lebanon War. The name "Merkava" was derived from the idf's initial development program name.