By examining values in literary texts, teachers encourage learners to develop attitudes towards them. These values and attitudes relate to the world outside the classroom. Literature holds high status in many cultures and countries. For this reason, students can feel a real sense of achievement at understanding a piece of highly respected literature. Also, literature is often more interesting than the texts found in coursebooks. Different models of teaching literature in class.
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This brings us back to the above definition in the sense that literature is only literature if it is considered as art. Before doing any study of a literary text with your learners, one idea would be to ask them what they think literature. . Attached below is a short discussion friend lesson you can do with your students on the subject What is literature? There are many good reasons for using literature in the classroom. Here are a few: Literature is authentic material. It is good to expose learners to this source of unmodified language in the classroom because they skills they acquire in dealing with difficult or unknown language can be used outside the class. Literary texts are often rich is multiple layers of meaning, and can be effectively mined for discussions and sharing feelings or opinions. Literature expands language awareness. Asking learners to examine sophisticated or non standard examples of language (which can occur in literary texts) makes them more aware of the norms of language use (Widdowson, 1975"d by lazar 1993). Literature educates paper the whole person.
The purpose of resumes this article is to look at some of the issues and ways in which literature can be exploited in the classroom. There are also links to classroom activities and lessons with literature that you can download and use straight away. First of all, any method or approach towards using literature in the classroom must take as a starting point the question: What is literature? The macmillan English Dictionary gives the following definition: literature / noun. Stories, poems, and plays, especially those that are considered to have value as art and not just entertainment (c) Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003, many authors, critics and linguists have puzzled over what literature. One broader explanation of literature says that literary texts are products that reflect different aspects of society. They are cultural documents which offer a deeper understanding of a country or countries (Basnet mounfold 1993). Other linguists say that there is no inherent quality to a literary text that makes a literary text, rather it is the interpretation that the reader gives to the text (Eagleton 1983).
(eds.) (2004) Critical pedagogies and language learning. (1989) The concept of method, interested knowledge, and the politics of language teaching. Pennycook,.(1999) Introduction: Critical approaches to tesol. Critical Applied Linguistics: a critical Introduction. A dogma for efl. (2006) An a-z of elt. By lindsay clandfield, an business article discussing ways to use literature in the efl/esl classroom. Literature has been a subject of study in many countries at a secondary or tertiary level, but until recently has not been given much pdf emphasis in the efl/esl classroom. It has only been since the 1980s that this area has attracted more interest among efl teachers.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Struggle to teach English as an International Language. (2003) beyond Methods: Macrostrategies for language teaching. New haven, ct: Yale University Press. (2006) Understanding Language teaching: From method to postmethod. Mahwah, nj: Lawrence Erlbaum. (2009)Teaching Unplugged: Dogme in English Language teaching. Peaslake, surrey: Delta publishing.
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Well, is another group going to? . Any teaching can be social and can bring about social change, only we cannot see the end result from the classroom's window. But my students sometimes write to me years later and tell how they helped change some stifling or ineffective structures at their universities and they will say: "Partly it was in your classroom that I learnt that what I say and think is of value". . Conclusions, in the end, the point is not whether Dogme itself is critical, half-critical, or not at all critical. Rather it is to raise the question: how exactly would a critical pedagogy manifest itself? .
That is to say, if Dogme with all its anti-establishment posturing is not critical, what is? (1999) Resisting linguistic imperialism in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. In were Freire,., Education for Critical Consciousness, ny: Continuum, holliday,. Appropriate methodology and Social Context.
Efl, a la dogme or not is too limited an activity to become an engine for social change. To effect social change you've got to get at power structures, the ownership of land, resources and the means of production and control of the police and military. It's clearly mad and daft to suggest dogme can do that. . What takes place in a classroom is taking place within society and is therefore social. When what takes place within a classroom is different than what usually takes place within a classroom, social change is affected. . You may find that some of us have used dogme to bring about a type of social change, for instance radically changing failing teenagers' attitudes to learning as a whole, as well as to learning English.
It's a small change at individual classroom level, but it's a significant change for those teenagers involved (Melissa). If dogme is to become more of a force for social change within the very small goldfish bowl that we inhabit it has to nail its colours to the mast. . Is dogme to be more than just a rejection of meaningless tasks and bland stodge from the publishers? I think dogme is radical within its own context, and the potential application of a dialogic approach within the wider school curriculum and education system is more radical (and challenging) still. But I don't think a specific notion of social change necessarily follows from dogme. Changing the paradigm for learning doesn't necessarily change the views and concerns of the people in the room. Language learning is part of the educational agenda of the new capitalism, and if dogme doesn't look at how this is true, pick it apart - and do something about.
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It doesnt reduce learners to stereotypes, but rather legitimizes individual identities. . In the light of the accumulated postings on the dogme discussion list ( m/group/dogme ) and the few articles that have come out describing Dogme theory and practice, it would seem that Dogme scores fairly highly on criteria 3 to 7, and possibly. More questionable are its transformative credentials: does plan Dogme have a political agenda, and does it really seek social change? . When I put this question on the discussion list, the response was varied, and often vociferous. To give you a flavour : Surely, by embracing the idea that teachers can be learners and that learners' lives are of much greater value than anything the publishing houses have to offer, dogme is transformative and does seek social change. After all, these things are not typical of most classrooms. How, how, how can a different way of teaching/enabling learners to learn efl possibly bring about social change?
According to these sources, a critical pedagogy. . is transformative, and seeks social change. . foregrounds social inquiry and critique. . challenges the status report quo and problematizes givens. . devolves agency to the learner. . is participatory and collaborative. . is locally-situated, and socially-mediated. .
proposed that the educational process should be grounded in the local needs and concerns of the participants. Whoever enters into dialogue does so with someone about something; and that something ought to constitute the new content of our proposed education (Freire, 1973,. In challenging the hegemony of coursebooks, especially those written outside of their contexts of use, the dogme elt movement (Thornbury, 2000; Meddings and Thornbury, 2009 positions itself in the Freirian tradition. . Moreover, it explicitly identifies itself as having critical credentials: Thornbury (2006 for instance, asserts: Proponents of a dogme approach argue that they are not so much anti-materials, as pro-learner, and thus align themselves with other forms of learner-centred instruction and critical pedagogy (p. But in what sense, if at all, is Dogme truly critical? Does the fact that it derives its content from learner language, rather than from coursebooks, make it dialogic, and hence critical? . After all, as Pennycook (1999) warns, a critical approach to tesol is more than arranging the chairs in a circle and discussing social issues (p. To answer this question, i extracted and collated a list of criteria from some of the current literature on critical pedagogy (Pennycook, 1999; 2001; Norton and toohey, 2004).
Norton and toohey (2004) define this position: Advocates of critical approaches to second language teaching are interested in relationships between language learning and social change. From this perspective, language is not simply a means of expression or communication; rather, it is a practice that constructs, and is constructed by, the ways language learners understand themselves, writings their social surroundings, their histories, and their possibilities for the future (p. Critical pedagogy, critical pedagogy traces its roots back to the Brazilian educational reformer, paulo Freire, whose pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970) is a foundational text. Freire took issue with the prevailing positivist educational paradigm: positivism is the belief that knowledge exists, independently of the learner, as a body of facts that can, and should, be transmitted from teacher (and textbook) to learner. As Freire puts it: Liberating education consists of acts of cognition, not transferrals of information (1970,. Freire contrasts two opposing models of education: on the one hand, the banking model in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor. Instead of communicating, the teacher issues communiqués and makes deposits which the students patiently receive, memorize, and repeat (p. As an alternative, freire advocates a dialogic pedagogy, in which the learners become not simply the objects of the teaching process, but agents in their own education: Through dialogue, the teacher-of-the-students and the students-of-the-teacher cease to exist and a new term emerges: teacher-student with student-teachers. The teacher is no longer merely the-one-who-teaches, but one who is himself taught in dialogue with the students, who in turn while being taught also teach (p.
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The postmethod condition, the reviews 'postmethod condition' (Kumaravadivelu 2003; Kumaravadivelu 2006) that I described in my previous article, and its rejection of top-down, one-size-fits-all solutions, has suggested, to some scholars, the need for a more socially responsible, even transformative, pedagogy. Pennycook (1989 for example, argues that methods are never disinterested, but rather instantiate relations of power: Method is a prescriptive concept that articulates a positivist, progressivist, and patriarchal understanding of teaching (p. He urges that teachers start to oppose those forms of knowledge that are being thrust upon them under the guise of scientific objectivity (p. Canagarajah (1999 among others, has pointed out how imported materials and methods enshrine postcolonial values, reinforcing the dominance of the western, more technologically advanced center over the periphery. Using locally produced materials might be one way of responding to the threat; another might be for local teachers to adopt creative and critical instructional practices in order to develop pedagogies suitable for their communities (p. And Holliday (1994; 2005) has argued that methodological prescriptions generated in bana contexts (i.e. British, north American and Australian may have little or no currency in other contexts, and has argued for more contextually sensitive and hence more appropriate methodologies, which are locally generated and validated. Pedagogies aligned to beliefs such as these are generally labelled critical and share the common intent to challenge existing power relations insofar as they impact on education, and, in our particular case, on second language education.