The bugs were installed in Selectric ii and iii models. 21 American typewriter keyboard layout Selectric iii keyboard layout The selectric keyboard layout differed in certain ways from the traditional layout of mechanical typewriters, notably in the placement of symbols, which largely dated back to the remington. 2 (1878 the first typewriter with a shift key and extensive symbols. Notably, it moved off of the digits 268, replacing them with and instead placing and -_ as pairs on keys. This change was made because smaller characters need to hit the paper with less force, and consolidating smaller characters such as into a pair on a single key avoided needing to adjust the force based on shift state. 22 The selectric layout became standard for electric typewriters in the us, and was inherited by the ibm pc (1981 and thence by many computer keyboards, particularly via the influential Model M (1985). In computer keyboard standards, this was formalized in the American Standards Association.14-1971 standard as typewriter pairing (colloquially a typewriter-paired keyboard along with bit-paired keyboards, but became the only standard in the successor.23-1982 standard.
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This was annoying to many typists, so it was not the and default configuration. The keytops on the selectric iii and Electronic Typewriters were larger and more square than those on earlier Selectrics. Replacement edit ibm wheelwriter (Wheelwriter 15 Series ii pictured). Ibm introduced the ibm wheelwriter in 1984 as a replacement for the selectric. The Wheelwriter featured a replaceable daisy wheel cartridge, had electronic memory, and offered many word processing features. Eavesdropping edit There is at least one known case of the selectric exploited as a covert listening device of the type known as a " keyboard logger ". In 1984, bugs were discovered in at least 16 Selectric typewriters in the us embassy in Moscow and the us consulate in Leningrad. The highly sophisticated devices were planted by the soviets between 19, and were hidden inside a metal support bar. Information was intercepted by detecting the movements of metal bars inside the typewriter (the "latch interposers the by means of magnetometers. The data was then compressed and transmitted in bursts.
In addition, ibm had already (c. 1977) brought to market the crt-based Office system/6 (from Office Products division) 16 (from ibm general Systems division (GSD) both of which used the new 6640 inkjet printer capable of 96 characters per second with two paper trays and sophisticated envelope handling, and was about. The selectric iii featured a 96-character element. The previous 88-character element. Ibm's series of "Electronic Typewriters" used this same 96-character element. The 96-character elements can be identified by yellow printing on the top plastic surface and the legend "96 which always appears along with the font name roles and pitch. The 96- and 88-character elements are mechanically incompatible with each other (they won't fit on each other's machines) and 96-character elements were not available in as many fonts as the older 88-character types. Most Selectric iiis and Electronic Typewriters only had keys for 92 printable characters; the 96-character keyboard was an optional feature. Fitting the additional keys onto the keyboard required shrinking the return key and Backspace keys.
Furthermore, tapes or cards originally recorded on the much less expensive and easier to operate selectric typewriter versions, the mt/st or MC/st, could be read by the "Composer" biography equivalents. For a number of years after its introduction, the selectric Composer entry was considered to be a highly desirable, powerful desk-sized cold type setting system, affordable by small businesses and organizations. It was usually leased, including a service contract for the skilled labor required to fix and adjust. The selectric Composer was accorded respect and affection among small publishers, unrivaled until the appearance of the Apple macintosh, laser printer, and desktop publishing software. 12 13 Ultimately the system proved a transitional product, as it was displaced by cheaper phototypesetting, and then in the 1980s by word processors and general-purpose computers. 14 Selectric iii edit Assorted 96-character ibm typing elements for the selectric iii, distinguished by the yellow lettering, the "96" legend, and different grooves inside the mounting hole In the 1980s ibm introduced a selectric iii and several other Selectric models, some of them word. This was to be expected, as by the late 1970s the selectric typewriter's dominance was under assault from both 35-45 character per second proportional-spacing electronic typewriters with inbuilt memory (e.g. The 800 from Xerox based on diablo's " daisywheels " and from oems of Qume who had a similar printwheel technology) and crt-based systems from aes, lexitron, vydek, wang and Xerox (see the word Processor article for further details of these brands).
Nor were all typefaces available in bold and italic in every size. The need to change elements frequently, sometimes multiple times in the same sentence, slowed work down and was a source of owner dissatisfaction. (In typical use, selectric elements were changed infrequently.) The balls themselves were somewhat fragile and not designed to resist frequent handling. Citation needed The following fonts were available for the composer: In contrast with the selectric, only ibm made elements for the composer. In 1967, a "Magnetic Tape selectric Composer" appeared, and in 1978, a "Magnetic Card Selectric Composer." The "Electronic Composer" (with approximately 5000 characters of internal memory, similar to the later Magnetic Card model but without external storage) was marketed from 1975. All these models used the same selectric Composer as output (printing) mechanism. However, due to the magnetic or internal storage, they avoided the need to type justified text twice or to manually set the mechanism for the justification needs of each line.
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To support backspacing over previously typed characters, the spacing code for the last 40 or so characters typed was mechanically stored by small sliding plates in a carrier wheel. Like the varityper with which it competed, the original machine required that material be typed twice if the output was to be justified. The first time was to measure the length of the line and count the spaces, recording measurements read from a special dial on the right margin. The second time it was typed, the operator set the measurements into the dial to set justification for each line. The process was tedious and slow, but provided a way to get camera-ready, proportionally spaced, justified copy from a desk-sized machine.
Sample of ibm magnetic Card Composer output (Press Roman 10pt font family) The elements for the selectric Composer would physically fit on a selectric, and vice versa, but they could not actually be used on each other's machines. The characters were arranged differently around the element and were also positioned differently within each character area. Selectric Composer elements can be identified by a colored index arrow (the color is used to set a median character width on the machine) and an abbreviated series of letters and numbers identifying the font, size, and variation, for example "UN-11-B" for Univers 11-point bold. 9 In addition to Univers, a century, times Roman, and later an "Aldine" font ( Bembo ) were available, as was a symbols font. However, the composer, with its relatively small market, never had anything like pdf the variety of typefaces available as there were for the selectric (see below). Each font required separate elements for italic and bold versions, and a separate set of roman/italic/bold for balls was required for each font size.
Like ibm's earlier typebar-based "Executive" models this offered proportional spacing, based on multiples of a 1/60" unit size. Unlike the various "Selectric Composer" models, there was no provision for setting the machine to vary the letter and word spacing to create justified copy. Some of the fonts originally offered with the mag Card Executive would later be made available for the model 50 electronic typewriter, which supported proportional spacing with 96-character elements. In April 1973 the ibm mag Card ii typewriter was announced, providing space for up to 8,000 characters in electronic memory. Ibm also sold a tape reader (ibm 2495) that could be connected to 360 series mainframes, and would read the mt/ST tapes. Thus a document typed on an MT/st selectric could also be entered into a mainframe data file.
5 Selectric Composer edit ibm magnetic Card In 1966, ibm released the selectric Composer. 6 This highly modified (and much more expensive) Selectric produced camera-ready justified copy using proportional fonts in a variety of font styles from 8 points to 14 points. 7 Material prepared on a properly adjusted machine by a skillful operator and printed onto baryta ( barium sulfate -coated) paper "would take an expert to tell. That it was not the product of a linotype or Monotype machine". 8 Characters were proportionally spaced, being from 3 to 9 units wide, with the size of a unit being selectable as either 1/72 1/84 or 1/96 to allow for different sizes of type (10, 12, or 15 characters per inch). Tab stops could only be positioned at intervals of one-sixth of an inch, or one pica.
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The typist would press (and release) the correction key and then re-type the erroneous character, either lifting it off of the page or (if using other than the correctable ribbon) covering it with white-out powder, then type the correct character. Any number of mistakes could be corrected this way, but the process was entirely manual, as the machine had no memory of the typed characters. Selectric-based machines with data storage edit In 1964 ibm introduced the " Magnetic Tape selectric Typewriter " and in 1969, a "Magnetic Card Selectric Typewriter." These were sometimes referred to as the "MT/ST" and "MC/st respectively. The mc/ST was also available in a "communicating" version that could emulate an ibm 2741 terminal or run night its native correspondence code. These featured electronically interfaced typing mechanisms and keyboards and a magnetic storage device (either tape in a cartridge, or a magnetic-coated card the same size as an 80-column punched card) for recording, long editing, and replaying typed material. 1215 characters per second. These machines were among the first to provide word processing capability in any form. They used the same elements as ordinary office selectrics. In 1972, the "Mag Card Executive" was offered.
It added an internal correction feature to the selectric ii, intended to eliminate the need for typists to use cover-up tape, "white-out" correction fluid, or typewriter design erasers. The carriage on this machine held both the main typing ribbon cartridge and two small spools for a correction ribbon. A new ribbon type, the correctable film ribbon, was introduced at the same time. This produced typing quality equal to the carbon film ribbon, but with a pigment designed to be easily removable from paper. There were two types of correction tapes: The transparent and slightly adhesive "Lift-Off" tape (for use with the correctable film ribbon or the white "cover-Up" tape (for cloth, tech-3, and carbon film ribbons). The correction tape was changed independently from the typing ribbon. The correction key (an extra key at the bottom right of the keyboard) backspaced the carriage by one space and also put the machine in a mode wherein the next character typed would use the correction tape instead of the normal ribbon, and furthermore would.
from each other in many respects: The selectric ii was available with a dual Pitch option to allow it to be switched (with a lever at the top left of the "carriage between 10 and 12 characters per inch, whereas the selectric. Separate elements were available for each pitch. In a few cases the same typeface was available in both pitches, for example, "Courier 72" was the 10-pitch variant of "Courier 12". The selectric ii had a lever (at the top left of the "carriage that allowed characters to be shifted up to a half space to the left (for centering text, or for inserting a word one character longer or shorter in place of a deleted. This option was available only on dual pitch models. Stylistically, the selectric ii was squarer at the corners, whereas the selectric I was rounder. Correcting Selectric ii edit In 1973 the correcting Selectric ii was announced.
4, contents, history, models, and related machines thesis edit, ibm selectric i, original Selectric edit. The selectric typewriter was introduced on Its industrial design is credited to influential American designer. Noyes had worked on a number of design projects for. Ibm ; prior to his work on the selectric, he had been commissioned in 1956. To create ibm's first house style : these influential efforts, in which noyes collaborated with. Paul Rand, marcel Breuer, and Charles Eames, have been referred to as the first "house style" program in American business. 3 Selectric ii edit ibm selectric ii (with dual Latin / Hebrew element and keyboard). The switch to the right of the backspace key shifts the machine to right-to-left typing, as is required for Hebrew. Note also the two typing position scales, one numbered left to right, the other right to left.
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For the record label, see. Ibm selectric, a selectric typing element, the, ibm selectric typewriter was a highly successful model line of electric typewriters introduced. Ibm on 1 2, instead of the "basket" of individual typebars that swung up to strike the ribbon and page in a typical typewriter of the period, the selectric had a "typing element" (frequently called a "typeball or more informally, a "golf ball that rotated. The element could be easily changed so as to use different fonts in the same document typed on the same typewriter, resurrecting a capability that had been pioneered by typewriters such as the. Hammond and, blickensderfer in the late 19th century. The selectric also replaced the traditional typewriter's horizontally moving carriage with shredder a roller ( platen ) that turned to advance the paper but did not move horizontally, while the typeball and ribbon mechanism moved from side to side. The selectric mechanism was notable for using internal mechanical binary coding and two mechanical digital-to-analog converters, called whiffletree linkages, to select the character to be typed. Selectrics and their descendants eventually captured 75 percent of the United States market for electric typewriters used in business. 3, ibm replaced the selectric line with the ibm wheelwriter in 1984 and transferred its typewriter business to the newly formed.