13 Another impact from fathers taking more leaves is that in Norway, it has been shown to have the potential to either decrease or increase the time women take, depending on whether the mother's and father's childcare are seen as substitutes or complements. If substitute goods, mothers are able to return to work sooner as fathers take some of the childcare responsibility. As for the latter, longer leave for fathers can motivate mothers to also stay home. 13 Fathers tend to use less parental leave than mothers in the United States as well as in other countries where paid leave is available, 29 37 and this difference may have factors other than the financial constraints which impact both parents. Bygren and duvander, 37 looking at the use of parental leave by fathers in Sweden, concluded that fathers workplace characteristics (including the size of the workplace, whether there were more men or women in the workplace, and whether the workplace was part of the private. As of 2016 paternity leave accounts for 25 of paid parental leave in Sweden. Length of leave edit family policy during World War ii when women were recruited into the workplace. In 2013, joseph, pailhé, recotillet, and Solaz published a natural experiment evaluating a 2004 policy change in France.
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2 When guaranteed leave is unpaid, research indicates that men's leave usage is unaffected. 35 While uncommon on a worldwide scale some countries do reserve parts of the paid leave for the father, meaning it can't be transferred to the mother and lapses unless he uses. Among the earliest countries to actively push for increased usage of paternity leave are the nordic welfare states, starting with Sweden making paternal leave gender neutral in 1974 and soon followed by Iceland, denmark, norway and Finland. These countries lack a unified concept of paternity leave, each imposing different conditions, ratios and timescales, but are regarded as among the most generous in the world. Partly in an initiative to combat the " Motherhood penalty norway in 1993 initiated a policy change to incentivize paternal leave, the so-called " father's" and Sweden followed suit in 1995. This means a certain number of parental leave-days can only be used by the father, and are otherwise lost. In countries in which leave entitlements include a father's" there has been a pronounced impact, with the" being credited for increasing paternal involvement and challenging gender roles within the family, promoting a more equal division of labor. 13 to evaluate this change, rønsen kitterød looked at the rate and timing of women's return to work after giving birth, and the effect on this of the new parental leave policy. In their 2015 study, rønsen kitterød found women in Norway returned to work significantly faster after the policy change. 36 However, public or subsidized daycare was greatly amway expanded at the same time, so rønsen kitterød did not find that the " father's" " was solely responsible for the timing of work entry. But it can be understood to have an effect on division of household labor by gender when both parents can take time to care for a new baby.
33 A drawback of rising leave at the societal level, however, is the resulting decrease in female labor supply. In countries with a high demand for labor, including many present-day countries with aging populations, a smaller labor supply is unfavorable. 13 Something important to note for all the research cited above is that the results typically depend on how leave coverage is defined, and whether the policies are for unpaid or paid leave. Policies guaranteeing paid-leave are considered by some to be dramatically more effective than unpaid-leave policies. 29 For women individually, long breaks in employment, as would come from parental leave, negatively affects their careers. Longer gaps are associated with reduced lifetime earnings and lower pension disbursements as well as worsened career prospects and reduced earnings. Due to these drawbacks, some countries, notably norway, have expanded family policy initiatives to increase the father's" and expand childcare in an effort to work towards greater gender equality. 13 According business to a 2016 study, the expansion of government-funded maternity leave in Norway from 18 to 35 months led mothers to spend more time at home without a reduction in family income. 34 Paternity leave and its effects edit Although parental leave is increasingly granted to fathers, mothers continue to take the majority of guaranteed parental leave.
Simultaneously, there is a decrease in the percentage of women who find new jobs which falls between 6 and. Thus, such legislation appears to increase how many women return to work post-childbirth by around 3. 33 Additionally, it appears that parental leave policies do allow women to stay home longer before returning to work as the probability of returning to an old job falls in the second month after childbirth before dramatically rising in the third month. Although this legislation thus appears to have minimal effect on women choosing to take leave, it does appear to increase the time women take in leave. 33 Maternity leave legislation could pose benefits or harm to employers. The main potential drawback of mandated leave is its potential to disrupt productive activities by raising rates of employee absenteeism. With mandated leave for a certain period of time and facing prolonged absence of the mothers in the workplace, firms will be faced with two options: hire a temp (which could involve training costs) or function with a missing employee. Alternatively, these policies could be positive for employers who previously did not best offer leave because they were worried about attracting employees who were disproportionately likely to use maternity leave. Thus, there is potential for these policies to correct market failures.
28 Maternity leave and its effects edit In the. S., while the family and Medical leave act of 1993 allows for unpaid parental leave, parents often do not utilize this eligibility to its fullest extent as it is unaffordable. As a result, some studies show that the fmla has had a limited impact on how much leave new parents take. 29 Though specific amounts can vary, having a child (including the cost of high-quality childcare) costs families approximately 11,000 in the first year. 30 These high costs contribute to new mothers in the United States returning to work quicker than new mothers in European countries; approximately one-third of women in the United States return to work within three months of giving birth, compared to approximately five per cent. 32 There is some evidence that legislation for parental leave raises the likelihood of women returning to their previous jobs as opposed to finding a new job. This rise is thought to fall to between 10 and.
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Leave legislation can also impact fertility rates. 26 Effects on the labor market edit a study in Germany found that wages decreased by 18 percent for every year an employee spends on parental leave. 26 However, after the initial decrease in wages, resume the employees salary rebounds faster than the salary of someone not offered parental leave. 26 A study of Californias leave policy, the first state in the. To require employers to offer paid parental leave, showed that wages did increase.
27 Parental leave can lead to greater job security. 26 Studies differ in how this helps return to work after taking time off. Some studies show that if a parent is gone for more than a year after the birth of a child, it decreases the possibility that he or she will return. 26 Other myself studies of shorter leave periods show that parents no longer need to quit their jobs in order to care for their children, so employment return increases. 27 It does not appear that parental leave policies have had a significant effect on the gender wage gap, which has remained relatively steady since the late 1980s, despite increasing adoption of parental leave policies.
However, in some, mainly western, countries, politicians, and social scientists argue for changing the role of the fathers, and the idea of the new father has especially been shaped by the nordic countries of Scandinavia. The process enables fathers to rationalize their parenting style and align this with what characterizes good care. Even though the mothers role as main parent has not changed, male parental leave is claimed by its supporters to transform the traditionally gendered father practices and to create a social morality in relation to partners and children. Some, however, consider that the allegedly positive effects of male parental leave are not supported by research, and warn that it might have negative effects. Norwegian psychology professor leif Edward Ottesen Kennair believes the father's" is indefensible from a psychological point of view, and argues that "we must at the very least ask ourselves what the consequences will be when we make a childhood environment that differs from what.
22 Other psychological perspectives summarise evidence and find that the role of a father in child development is very similar to that of a mother, which conflicts with the idea that greater paternal involvement in childcare could lead to subtantial and potentially dangerous consequences. 23 It also has to be considered that fathers from different classes see their roles alternatively during their paternity leave. Whereas middle class fathers consider themselves as suitable alternative to the mother having the same competencies, working class men see themselves more as supporters during their leave. In consequence middle class fathers mostly use their leave right after the mother returns to work, meanwhile working class fathers do their leave during the mother's leave. 24 Effects of parental leave edit typically, the effects of parental leave are improvements in prenatal and postnatal care, including a decrease in infant mortality. 25 The effects of parental leave on the labor market include an increase in employment, changes in wages, and fluctuations in the rate of employees returning to work.
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While gender discrimination is illegal, without some kind of remedy, the neoclassical model would predict "statistical discrimination" against hiring women of child-bearing years. 18 19 Occupational sex segregation edit If women take long parental leaves, the neoclassical model would predict that their lifetime earnings and opportunities for promotion will be less than their male or childfree counterparts, or the " motherhood penalty." 20 business Women may seek out employment. 21 nielsen, simonsen, and Verner examine what the different outcomes for women in Denmark are literature between the "family-friendly" and the "non-family-friendly" sector. 11 In Denmark, the public sector is "family-friendly" because of its generous leave and employee benefits; workers decide which sector to work on based on their preferences and opportunities. The study found that while in the "family-friendly" sector, there was basically no wage loss related to taking parental leave, women did have consistent earnings loss in the "non-family-friendly" private sector for a 1-year leave. 11 Cost edit Universal, paid parental leave can be privately funded (i.e., corporations are mandated to absorb the cost of paid parental time off as part of employee benefits ) or publicly funded (i.e., transferred directly to workers on leave, like unemployment insurance ). Concerns about private funding include the statistical discrimination described above as well as the costs to smaller businesses. Datta gupta, smith, verneer found in 2008 that, while publicly funded parental leave has benefits, it is very expensive to fund and question if it is the most cost-effective use of funds. Citation needed Criticism of the 'father"' edit social norms have historically not included child care in the main responsibilities of fathers.
Each parent gets at least 90 days of parental leave, thus the" applies equally to both parents thesis and is not specific fathers. 9 The only nordic country that does not provide fathers with a" is Denmark. However, the dual earner/dual care model seems to be the direction of all the nordic countries are moving in the construction of their parental leave systems. 10 Income and workforce edit paid parental leave incentivizes labor market attachment for women both before and after birth, affecting gdp and national productivity, as the workforce is larger. Parental leave increases income at the household level, as well, by supporting dual-earner families. 15 paid parental leave incentivizes childbirth, which affects the future workforce. It is thus argued that paid parental leave, in contrast to unpaid parental leave, is harmful to children's welfare because in countries with an aging workforce or countries with Sub-replacement fertility, children are born not because the parents want the child and can meet the. Some see children as responsible for supporting all those in older generations in the society (not just the child's specific parents their earnings are expected not to be saved for the children's own old age, but to be spent on the earlier generations' demand for. 16 17 Challenges to universal, paid leave edit Statistical discrimination edit The neoclassical model of labor markets predicts that if the cost of hiring women of child-bearing years is anticipated to increase (either because the employer is mandated to pay for maternity leave, or because.
mandate. Contents, economic models edit, benefits of universal, paid parental leave edit capabilities approach edit jeremiah Carter and Martha nussbaum have developed a political model known as the capabilities approach, where basic freedoms and opportunities are included in economic assessments of a country's well-being, in addition. 7 8 Nussbaum proposed 11 central capabilities as the minimum requirement for a decent society. In Nussbaum 's model, states should provide the resources and freedoms to ensure people have the opportunity to achieve a minimum threshold of each central capability. Universal, paid parental leave is an example resource states can provide so people have the option of starting a family while also working; for instance, under capacity 10 (control of one's environment), the state has a responsibility to ensure all people have "the right. Although, all Nordic countries have extended the total leave period, their politics towards fathers" are different. Iceland and Norway have established equal 3 month"s for the father. In Sweden 90 days cannot be transferred from one parent to the other—i.
Often, the minimum benefits and eligibility requirements are stipulated by law. Unpaid parental or family leave is provided when an employer is required to hold an employee's job while that employee is taking leave. Paid parental or family leave provides paid time off work to care for or make arrangements for the welfare of a child or dependent family member. The three most common models of funding are social insurance/social security (where employees, employers, or taxpayers margaret in general contribute to a specific public fund employer liability (where the employer must pay the employee for the length of leave and mixed policies that combine both social. 3, parental leave has been available as a legal right and/or governmental program for many years, in one form or another. International Labour Organization reviewed parental leave policies in 185 countries and territories, and found that all countries except. Papua new guinea have laws mandating some form of parental leave. 4, a different study showed that of 186 countries examined, 96 offered some pay to mothers during leave, but only 81 of those countries offered the same for fathers. 5, the, united States, suriname, papua new guinea, and several island countries in the.
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"Maternity leave" and "Paternity leave" redirect here. For other uses, see. Maternity leave (Lost) and, paternity leave (film). Parental leave or family leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries. 1, the term "parental leave" generally includes maternity, paternity, and adoption leave. A distinction between "maternity general leave" and "parental leave" is sometimes made- maternity leave as the mother's leave time directly before and after childbirth and parental leave being the time given to care for newborns. 2, in some countries and jurisdictions, "family leave" also includes leave provided to care for ill family members.