Saraswati a big tract of land to the west of Yamuna and east of Indus in this plain is devoid of any water system at present. This tract includes the states of Haryana, punjab and Rajasthan. But now it has been proved that in ancient times the river Saraswati and its tributaries used to flow in this area. The sindhu or Indus rises from the kailasa manasarovar area in the tibetan plateau, runs west and north west for about 1300 Kms, between the karakoram range. Then joined by the gilgit river, it turns south and reaches the plains where the five rivers join it to form Panchananda desha or Punjab. These five tributaries of the sindhu from east to west are: Sutlej (Satudri was once a tributary of the lost river Saraswati, but changed its course.
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Peaks Himlaya has 114 peaks which are more than 20,000 feet high. Notable: gauri Shankar or everest (the highest mountain in the world) Kanchanjanga, dhaulagiri, nanga parvat and Nanda devi. Western boundary The hindukush mountains, right from the pamirs, form the natural western boundary of the Indian subcontinent. Vs Iran The mountains of Safed Koh, sulaiman and Kirthar separate Iran from the Indian subcontinent. But the large stretches of land to the west of this line in modern Afghanistan and Baluchistan, like those to the south and east of the hindukush, were for long both culturally and politically parts of India. Eastern Hills Patkoi hills, naga hills, manipur Plateau including the Khasi, garo and jaintia hills. The lushai and Chin hills are to the south of Manipur. Indo-gangetic-Bramhaputra Plain to the south of the himalayas lies the great plain of India which is more than 3200 kms long and about 240 kms to 320 kms broad. It is formed by the solid waste of the himalayas brought by hundreds of descending streams. The alluvium thus formed made the plains desk most fertile. There are three great river systems, originating from the himalayas, which supply perennial water to this great plain.
Exploitation starts in 2adhence, kolar considered to be earliest capital of owl the south though much of the gold in early times was imported from Central Asia and Roman empire. Since domestic supply of gold lowgold coins became rare with time. Precious stones Odisha, central and south India. Precious stones were traded with Romans in early centuries of Christian era. Indian Subcontinent: a geography (Keep referring to map while reading this) there are six countries in this area: Afghanistan, pakistan, nepal, India, bhutan and Bangladesh In ancient times this whole mass of land was known as Bharatavarsha or Hindustan; Name hindustan is derived from river. Our constitution uses both names India and Bharat geographical borders of India region Bordered by north Himalyas western and north-western side pamir plateau and Sulaiman Kirthar ranges western side Arabian sea eastern side bay of Bengal southern borders Indian Ocean. Physically the subcontinent can be studied in three parts : (i) The himalayas, (ii) The Indo-gangetic-Brahmaputra plain (iii) The deccan plateau. The himalayas are stretched from Afghanistan in the west upto myanmar in the east. Tibetan Plateau tibetan plateau forms the northern part of Himalaya more than 2,400 Kms long 250 to 320 kms wide.
Formation of Magadh Empire owed much to iron availability in this region. Mineral Resources of Ancient India copper Copper of hazaribagh and Singhbhum helped growth of civilization around Pataliputra. Khetri-rajasthangrowth of vedic and pre-vedic settlements. Since copper was the first metal to be used by Aryans, hindu rituals usually require copper utensils. Lead found in Andhra- hence satavahanas used lead coins. Silver From Kharagpur hills. Used in the earliest punch presentation marked coins.
Tin was scarce even in Ancient times. But there is reason to believe it existed in Rajasthan and Bihar but all used. Harappan procured some tin from Rajasthan but main source was Afghanistan. Because of this scarity harappen used less bronze than the civilizations of Asia, egypt and Crete. Hence India doesnt have a proper bronze age. But during early centuries of Christian era, india made trade connection with Burma and Malayasia tin imported and used plenty to making bronze status of gold, particularly in south India. Iron In south Bihar- east mp and Karnataka once the art of steel making was known, we used iron for war, clearaing jungles and regular-deep cultivation.
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(Shaka, satvahan, maratha and Rajput) mountains and Language diversity each area bound by rivers and mountains difficulty in communication in course of time, every region windows grew into distinct culture, language and lifestyle. But in North and Western India, many languages derived from same Indo-Aryan stock. And Sanskrit camee to be cultivated and understood all over the country. Vindhya mountains formed the boundary between North and south. Dravidian languages lived south of Vindhya and Aryan languages lived in North.
But Vindhya didnt constitute writing insurmountable barriers. There was two way trade, migration helped in composite culture. Stones earliest settlements are found in hilly areas and river valleys between such hills. Because this region provided all types of stones for construction and tool making. Until the invention of burnt brick, the stones were main construction Material. More temples were made in Stone in Deccan and south India than in North India.
In modern times, urban sites developed at railroad junctions and mining zones (as we saw in geography location factor articles) but in the ancient times, rivers served as arteries of commerce and communication. Important cities such as Hastinapur, Prayag, varanasi, pataliputra were situation on the river banks. Bad: they caused heavy floods in northern plains. Many ancient sites and buildings have been washed away beyond recovery. Rivers also formed political boundaries in the ancient-medieval times.
For example: rivers and Regions region river boundaries North south Kalinga (Odisha) Mahanadi godawari Andhra godawari Krishna tamilnadu Krishna kaveri Chola kingdom south Pennar vaigai river Maharashtra tapi/Damanganga Bhima karnataka bhima/Krishna tungbhadra tungbhadra river provided natural frontier between kingdoms: made it difficult for Chalukyas and. Eastern Ghats Eastern Ghatsnot very high, and eastward flow of river caused many oenings. Thus, communication between Andhra-tamilnadu was not difficult even helped in development of the port cities of Arikamedu, mahabalipuram, kaveripattanam on Coromandal coast Rajasthan Area west of Aravalli Thar desert, rajasthanhuman settlement difficult. But south-Eastern part of Rajasthan relatively fertile since ancient times existence of Khetri copper mines. Hence we can find human settlements here since Chalcolithic period. Gujarat: Katiawar peninsulaless rain coastal area of Western Gujarat indented several harbours. Therefore, since Ancient times, gujarat famous for foreign trade. Madhya pradesh, malwa can be divided into two parts: east and west Western part including Malwa served as important hinterland for Gujarat ports. Therefore many wars fought to control Malwa and Gujarat.
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Kashmir became the center for cultivation of Sanskrit. It had the largest number of Sanskrit manuscripts. Similarly nepal valley-was accessible to gangetic plains through number of passes, and helped in cultural interaction. Rivers rivers in the foothills mini of Himalaya had smaller widtheasier to cross in the Ancient days when bridge-Architecture was not developed. Heart of historical Indiagangetic plains. It was formed by rivers, swollen through tropical rains long and Himalayan snow melting. In Ancient times, difficult to construct roadsmen and material moved through rivers. Even the Ashokan stone pillars were carried to different parts of India through boats.
Among these, the use of the. Khyber pass was very frequent and is known as the gateway to India. Since early times there has been a more or less constant intercourse between East Africa, arabia, central Asia and India maintained by the migrations of herds of mammals India received large accessions by migration of the larger quadrupeds from Egypt, Arabia, central Asia. Even from the distant North America by way of land bridges across Alaska, siberia and Mongolia. Suleiman ranges could be crossed through Khyber pass Kirthar ranges could be crossed through Bolan Pass. Through these passes, two-way traffic between India and Central Asia has been going since pre-historic times. This helped Irani, afghani even soviet Central Asian invaders and immigrants to come to India. Valleys Kashmir Valley was surrounded on all sides by high voltaire mountains, yet could be reached through several passes. Winter: forced Kashimiris to towards plains Summer: attached shepherds from plains towards mountains This two-way movement facilitated the exchange of ideas and cultures.
later. Large scale human settlements generally spread from West to east. Himalaya, himalayas protected early civilizations from the cold Siberian winds. Since cold was not so severe in the plains, Aryan people could live outdoors for longer periods and did not need heavy clothing. The great Indus, ganga and Brahmaputra plains with most fertile land, natural resources and perennial rivers gift of the himalayas. The himalayas form a formidable barrier against the foreign invasions from the north. This was important during pre-industrial times when communication was very difficult. Mountain Passes, there are some important passes in Himalayas, through which interaction with western, central and northern Asia has been maintained since time immemorial.
Monsoon 1AD: Men understood the direction of south West Monsoon, and traders sailed with the south West Monsoon from Western Asia, mediterranean area and came to India and south East Area. They returned with the advent of North-East Monsoon westward. Thus the discovery about of monsoon enabled India to carry trade and cultural links with Western Asia. Area rainfall (cm) implication, diet, western Gangetic plain 37-60, vegetation could be cleared through stone and copper toolsfit for cultivation and settlement. Hence 6BC we find the earliest agriculture settlements here, and trade routes through Terai wheat and Barley, middle gangetic plains 60-125. Difficult to clear with stone-copper tools. Rice, lower Gangetic plains and Brahmaputra 125-250, thick forests.
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Monsoon mountain passes, the himalayas, the sindhu or Indus. Ganga, brahmaputra, deccan Plateau and Central India, western Side of Central Indian Plateau. Climate coastal Regions, indian geography in Ancient Literature, essay fodder. The spirit of Humanity in Ancient India. Sectarianism as an aid to nationalism. Regional spirit, maritime diaspora, history of India cannot be understood without some knowledge of its geography. This article is mere compilation of following Old ncerts:.4 Old ncert class 11: Ancient India by arma (1990). Ch.4 Old ncert class 11: Medieval India by meenaxi book jain (2002).