95 During the riots, police officers often did not intervene in situations where they were able. 2 83 96 In 2012 maya kodnani, a minister in Modi's government from 2007 to 2009, was convicted by a lower court for participation in the naroda patiya massacre during the 2002 riots. 97 98 Although Modi's government had announced that it would seek the death penalty for Kodnani on appeal, it reversed its decision in 2013. 99 100 On, the gujarat High court acquitted Kodnani while noting that there were several shortfalls in the investigation. 101 Modi's personal involvement in the 2002 events has continued to be debated. During the riots, modi said that "What is happening is a chain of action and reaction." 2 Later in 2002, modi said the way in which he had handled the media was his only regret regarding the episode. 102 Modi has not offered an apology for the riots and has stated that he should be rather punished and not forgiven if he is guilty.
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81 85 The government's decision to move the bodies of the train victims from Godhra to Ahmedabad further inflamed the violence. 81 86 The state government stated later that 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed. 87 Independent sources put the death toll at over 2000. 81 88 Approximately 150,000 people were driven to refugee camps. 89 Numerous women and children were among the victims; the violence included mass rapes and mutilations of women. 2 The government of Gujarat itself is generally considered by scholars to have been complicit in the riots, 1 2 3 and has otherwise points received heavy criticism for its handling of the situation. 90 several scholars have described the violence as a pogrom, while others have called it an example of state terrorism. Summarising academic views on the subject, martha nussbaum said: "There is by now a broad consensus that the gujarat violence was a form of ethnic cleansing, that in many ways it was premeditated, and that it was carried out with the complicity of the state. 85 The president of the state unit of the bjp expressed support for the bandh, despite such actions being illegal at the time. 3 State officials later prevented riot victims from leaving the refugee camps, and the camps were often unable to meet the needs of those living there. 94 Muslim victims of the riots were subject to further discrimination when the state government announced that compensation for Muslim victims would be half of that offered to hindus, although this decision was later reversed after the issue was taken to court.
76 On, modi was administered the oath of office. 77 On 24 February 2002 he entered the gujarat state legislature by winning a by-election to the rajkot ii constituency, defeating Ashwin Mehta of the inc by 14,728 votes, which enabled him to take office. 78 2002 Gujarat riots main article: 2002 Gujarat riots On 27 February 2002, a train with several hundred passengers burned near Godhra, killing approximately 60 people. E the train carried a large number of Hindu pilgrims returning from ayodhya after paper a religious ceremony at the site of the demolished Babri masjid. 81 82 In making a public statement after the incident, modi said that the attack had been terror attack planned by local Muslims. 3 81 83 The next day, the vishwa hindu parishad called for a bandh across the state. 85 riots began during the bandh, and anti-muslim violence spread through Gujarat.
69 71 The following year, Shankersinh Vaghela, a prominent bjp leader from Gujarat, defected to the Indian National Congress (Congress, inc) after losing his parliamentary seat in the lok sabha elections. 25 Modi, on the selection committee for the 1998 Assembly elections in Gujarat, favoured supporters of bjp leader Keshubhai patel over those supporting Vaghela to end factional type division in the party. His strategy was first credited as key to the bjp winning an overall majority in the 1998 elections, 69 and Modi was promoted to bjp general secretary (organisation) in may of that year. Chief Minister of Gujarat taking office In 2001, keshubhai patel's health was failing and the bjp lost a few state assembly seats in by-elections. Allegations of abuse of power, corruption and poor administration were made, and Patel's standing had been damaged by his administration's handling of the earthquake in Bhuj in 2001. The bjp national leadership sought a new candidate for the chief ministership, and Modi, who had expressed misgivings about Patel's administration, was chosen as a replacement. 25 Although bjp leader. Advani did not want to ostracise patel and was concerned about Modi's lack of experience in government, modi declined an offer to be patel's deputy chief minister, telling Advani and Atal Bihari vajpayee that he was "going to be fully responsible for Gujarat or not. On e replaced Patel as Chief Minister of Gujarat, with the responsibility of preparing the bjp for the december 2002 elections.
Modi became an rss sambhag pracharak (regional organiser) in 1978, overseeing rss activities in the areas of Surat and Vadodara, and in 1979 he went to work for the rss in Delhi, where he was put to work researching and writing the rss's version. He returned to gujarat a short while later, and was assigned by the rss to the bjp in 1985. 30 In 1987 Modi helped organise the bjp's campaign in the Ahmedabad municipal election, which the bjp won comfortably; Modi's planning has been described as the reason for that result by biographers. Advani became president of the bjp in 1986, the rss decided to place its members in important positions within the bjp; Modi's work during the Ahmedabad election led to his selection for this role, and Modi was elected organising secretary of the bjp's Gujarat unit. Modi rose within the party and was named a member of the bjp's National Election Committee in 1990, helping organise. Advani 's 1990 Ram Rath Yatra in 1990 and Murli manohar Joshi 's 199192 Ekta yatra (Journey for Unity). 25 However, he took a brief break from politics in 1992, instead establishing a school in Ahmedabad; friction with Shankersingh Vaghela, a bjp mp from Gujarat at the time, also played a part in this decision. Modi returned to electoral politics in 1994, partly at the insistence of Advani, and as party secretary, modi's electoral strategy was considered central to the bjp victory in the 1995 state assembly elections. In november of that year Modi was elected bjp national secretary and transferred to new Delhi, where he assumed responsibility for party activities in Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.
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54 Early political career In June 1975, Prime minister Indira gandhi declared a state of emergency in India which lasted until 1977. During this period, known as "The Emergency many of her political opponents were jailed and opposition groups were banned. Modi was appointed general secretary of the "Gujarat lok sangharsh Samiti an rss committee coordinating opposition to the Emergency in Gujarat. Shortly afterwards, the rss was banned. Modi was forced to go underground in Gujarat and frequently travelled in disguise to avoid arrest.
He parent became involved in printing pamphlets opposing the government, sending them to delhi and organising demonstrations. Modi was also involved with creating a network of safe houses for individuals wanted by the government, and in raising funds for political refugees and activists. During this period, modi writing wrote a book in Gujarati, sangharsh ma gujarat ( In The Struggles of Gujarat describing events during the Emergency. 61 62 Among the people he met in this role was trade unionist and socialist activist george fernandes, as well as several other national political figures. In his travels during the Emergency, modi was often forced to move in disguise, once dressing as a monk, and once as a sikh.
In interviews, modi has described visiting Hindu ashrams founded by Swami vivekananda : the belur Math near Kolkata, followed by the Advaita Ashrama in Almora and the ramakrishna mission in Rajkot. Modi remained only a short time at each, since he lacked the required college education. 36 vivekananda has been described as a large influence in Modi's life. 37 In the early summer of 1968, modi reached the belur Math but was turned away, after which Modi wandered through Calcutta, west Bengal and Assam, stopping in Siliguri and Guwahati. Modi then went to the ramakrishna Ashram in Almora, where he was again rejected, before travelling back to gujarat via delhi and Rajasthan in 196869. Sometime in late 1969 or early 1970, modi returned to vadnagar for a brief visit before leaving again for Ahmedabad.
There, modi lived with his uncle, working in the latter's canteen at the gujarat State road Transport Corporation. In Ahmedabad, modi renewed his acquaintance with Inamdar, who was based at the hedgewar Bhavan (rss headquarters) in the city. 43 44 After the Indo-pakistani war of 1971, he stopped working for his uncle and became a full-time pracharak (campaigner) for the rss, working under Inamdar. Shortly before the war, modi took part in a non-violent protest against the Indian government in New Delhi, for which he was arrested; this has been cited as a reason for Inamdar electing to mentor him. Many years later Modi would co-author a biography of Inamdar, published in 2001. 47 In 1978 Modi received a bachelor of Arts degree in political science from School of Open learning 48 at University of Delhi, 49 graduating with a third class. 51 five years later, in 1982, he received a master of Arts degree in political science from Gujarat University, 52 53 as an external distance learning student.
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25 Modi had an early gift for rhetoric in debates, and his teachers and students paper noted this. Modi preferred playing larger-than-life characters in theatrical productions, which has influenced his political image. 28 When eight years old, modi discovered the rashtriya swayamsevak sangh (RSS) and began attending its local shakhas (training sessions). There, modi met lakshmanrao inamdar, popularly known as vakil Saheb, who inducted him as a balswayamsevak (junior cadet) for rss and became his political mentor. While modi was training with the rss, he also met Vasant Gajendragadkar and Nathalal Jaghda, bharatiya jana sangh leaders who were founding members of the bjp's Gujarat unit in 1980. 30 Engaged while still a child to jashodaben, a girl from a family who lived close by, modi rejected the arranged marriage at the same time he graduated from high school. The resulting familial tensions contributed to his decision parts to leave home in 1967. Modi spent the ensuing two years travelling across Northern and North-eastern India, though few details of where he went have emerged.
He has begun a and high-profile sanitation campaign, and weakened or abolished environmental and labour laws. Credited with engineering a political realignment towards right-wing politics, modi remains a figure of controversy domestically and internationally over his Hindu nationalist beliefs and his role during the 2002 Gujarat riots, cited as evidence of an exclusionary social agenda. D Contents Early life and education Narendra modi was born on 17 September 1950 to a family of grocers in Vadnagar, mehsana district, bombay state (present-day gujarat). He was the third of six children born to damodardas Mulchand Modi (c. ) and Hiraben Modi (born.1920). Modi's family belonged to the modh - ghanchi - teli (oil-presser) community, which is categorised as an Other Backward Class by the Indian government. 21 22 As a child, modi helped his father sell tea at the vadnagar railway station and later ran a tea stall with his brother near a bus terminus. 23 24 Modi completed his higher secondary education in Vadnagar in 1967, where a teacher described him as an average student and a keen debater, with interest in theatre.
to initiate prosecution proceedings. B, his policies as chief minister, credited with encouraging economic growth, have received praise. 8, his administration has been criticised for failing to significantly improve health, poverty, and education indices in the state. C, modi led the bjp in the 2014 general election, which gave the party a majority in the. Lok sabha, the first time a single party had achieved this since 1984. Modi himself was elected to parliament from Varanasi. Since taking office, modi's administration has tried to raise foreign direct investment in the Indian economy, increased spending on infrastructure, and reduced spending on healthcare and social welfare programmes. Modi has attempted to improve efficiency in the bureaucracy, and centralised power by abolishing the planning commission and replacing it with the niti aayog.
He left home after salon graduating from school, partly because of an arranged marriage which he rejected. Modi travelled around India for two years and visited a number of religious centres. He returned to gujarat and moved. Ahmedabad in 1969 or 1970. In 1971 he became a full-time worker for the rss. During the state of emergency imposed across the country in 1975, modi was forced to go into hiding. The rss assigned him to the bjp in 1985, and he held several positions within the party hierarchy until 2001, rising to the rank of general secretary. Modi was appointed Chief Minister of Gujarat in 2001, due. Keshubhai patel 's failing health and poor public image following the earthquake in Bhuj.
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Narendra damodardas Modi (Gujarati: nəɾendrə damodəɾdas modi ( listen born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current, prime minister of India since 2014. He was the, chief Minister. Gujarat from 2001 to 2014, and is the. Member of Parliament for, varanasi. Modi, a member of the. Bharatiya janata party (bjp is a, hindu nationalist and member of the right-wing, rashtriya swayamsevak sangh (RSS). Born to a gujarati family. Vadnagar, modi helped his father sell tea as a child and later ran his own stall. He was introduced to the rss at the age of eight, beginning a long friend association with the organisation.