48 New English translations of Songs of Kabir is done by Arvind Krishna mehrotra."It is Mehrotra who has succeeded in capturing the ferocity and improvisational energy of Kabirs poetry". 49 Kabir's legacy continues to be carried forward by the kabir panth path of Kabir a religious community that recognises him as its founder and is one of the sant Mat sects. This community was founded centuries after Kabir died, in various parts of India, over the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Its members, known as Kabir panthis, are estimated to be around.6 million. Citation needed They are spread over north and central India, as well as dispersed with the Indian diaspora across the world, up from 843,1 census. 51 There are two temples dedicated to kabir located in Benares.
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If I tell the truth they rush to beat me, if I lie they trust. — Kabir, sabda 4, 6 :4 Kabir response to persecution and slander was to welcome. He called the slanderer a friend, expressed gratefulness for the slander, for it brought him closer to his god. 44 Winand for Callewaert translates a poem attributed to kabir in the warrior-ascetic Dadupanthi tradition within Hinduism, as follows: 45 keep the slanderer near you, build him a hut in your courtyard — for, without soap or water, he will scrub your character clean. — Kabir, sākhī.4, 45 The legends about Kabir describe him as the underdog who nevertheless is victorious in trials by a sultan, a brahmin, a qazi, a merchant, a god or a goddess. The ideological messages in the legends appealed to the poor and oppressed. According to david Lorenzen, legends about Kabir reflect a "protest against social discrimination and economic exploitation they present the perspective of the poor and powerless, not the rich and powerful. 46 However, many scholars doubt that these legends of persecution are authentic, point to the lack of any corroborating evidence, consider it unlikely that a muslim Sultan would take orders from Hindu Brahmins or Kabir's own mother demanded that the sultan punish Kabir, and question. 47 Kabir literature legacy was championed by two of his disciples, Bhāgodās and Dharmadās. Songs of Kabir were collected by Kshitimohan Sen from mendicants across India, these were then translated to English by rabindranath Tagore.
42 Kabir left Islam, states Ronald McGregor, but that does not mean Kabir adopted Hindu beliefs. 4 Kabir, nevertheless, criticized practices such as killing and eating a cow by muslims, in a manner Hindus criticized those practices: 43 we have searched the turaki dharam ( Turk's religion, islam these teachers throw many thunderbolts, recklessly they display boundless pride, while explaining their. How can they kill the mother, whose milk they drink like that of a wet nurse? The young and the old drink milk pudding, but these fools eat the cow's margaret body. These morons know nothing, they wander about in ignorance, without looking into one's heart, how can one reach paradise? — Kabir, ramaini 1, Translated by david Lorenzen 43 Persecution and social impact edit kabir's couplets suggest he was persecuted for his views, while he was alive. He stated, for example, saints I see the world is mad.
Alternatively, states vaudeville, the saguna prema-bhakti (tender devotion) may have been prepositioned as the journey towards self-realization of the nirguna Brahman, a universality beyond monotheism. Lorenzen and Adrián muñoz trace these ideas of God in Kabir's philosophy as nirguna Brahman to those in Adi Shankara 's theories on Advaita vedanta school of Hinduism, albeit with some differences. 40 Influence of Islam edit lorenzen in his review of Kabir philosophy and poetry writes, "the extent to which Kabir borrowed elements from Islam is controversial. Many recent scholars have argued that he simply rejected Islam and took almost all his ideas and beliefs from the hindu tradition. Contemporary kabir Panth sadhus remote makes roughly the same argument. Most of the vocabulary used in his songs and verses is borrowed directly from the hindu tradition. Nonetheless it is hard not to see the influence of Islam in his insistence on devotion to a single god, a god Kabir most often calls Ram". 40 Some scholars state that the sexual imagery in some of Kabir's poems reflect a mystic Sufi Islam influence, wherein Kabir inverts the traditional Sufi representation of a god-woman and devotee-man longing for a union, and instead uses the imagery of Lord-husband and devotee-bride. 41 Other scholars, in contrast, state that it is unclear if Sufi ideas influenced Bhakti sants like kabir or it was vice versa, suggesting that they probably co-developed through mutual interaction.
6 :45 36 Kabir urged people to look within and consider all human beings as manifestation of God's living forms: If God be within the mosque, then to whom does this world belong? If Ram be within the image which you find upon your pilgrimage, then who is there to know what happens without? Hari is in the east, Allah is in the west. Look within your heart, for there you will find both Karim and Ram; All the men and women of the world are his living forms. Kabir is the child of Allah and of Ram: he is my guru, he is my pir. — Kabir, iii.2, Translated by rabindranath Tagore 37 Charlotte vaudeville states that the philosophy of Kabir and other sants of the Bhakti movement is the seeking of the Absolute. The notion of this Absolute is nirguna which, writes vaudeville, is same as "the Upanishadic concept of the Brahman-Atman and the monistic Advaita interpretation of the vedantic tradition, which denies any distinction between the soul within a human being and God, and urges man. 38 vaudeville notes that this philosophy of Kabir and other Bhakti sants is self-contradictory, because if God is within, then that would be a call to abolish all external bhakti. This inconsistency in Kabir's teaching may have been differentiating "union with God" from the concept of "merging into god, or Oneness in all beings".
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35 Kabir rejected the hypocrisy and resume misguided rituals evident in various religious practices of his day, including those in Islam and Hinduism. 35 saints i've seen both ways. Hindus and Muslims don't want discipline, they want tasty food. The hindu keeps the eleventh-day fast, eating chestnuts and milk. He curbs his grain but not his brain, and breaks his fast with meat.
The turk muslim prays daily, fasts once a year, and crows "God!, god!" like a cock. What heaven is reserved for people who kill chickens in the dark? Instead of kindness and compassion, they've cast out all desire. One kills with a chop, one lets the blood drop, in both houses burns the same fire. Turks and Hindus have one way, the guru's made it clear. Don't say ram, don't say khuda Allah, so says Kabir. — Kabir, śabda 10, Translated by linda hess and Shukdeo singh 6 :46 In Bijak, kabir mocks the practice of praying to avatars such as Buddha of Buddhism, by asserting "don't call the master Buddha, he didn't put down devils".
24 However, except for Adi Granth, significantly different versions of these texts exist and it is unclear which one is more original; for example, kabir Bijak exists in two major recensions. 25 The most in depth scholarly analysis of various versions and translations are credited to Charlotte vaudeville, the 20th century French scholar on Kabir. 25 Kabir's poems were verbally composed in the 15th century and transmitted viva voce through the 17th century. Kabir Bijak was compiled and written down for the first time in the 17th century. 26 Scholars state that this form of transmission, over geography and across generations bred change, interpolation and corruption of the poems. 26 Furthermore, whole songs were creatively fabricated and new couplets inserted by unknown authors and attributed to kabir, not because of dishonesty but out of respect for him and the creative exuberance of anonymous oral tradition found in Indian literary works.
26 Scholars have sought to establish poetry that truly came from Kabir and its historicity value. 27 Authenticity edit numerous poems are attributed to kabir, but scholars now doubt the authenticity of many songs credited to him. 6 :6 Rabindranath Tagore 's English translation and compilation One hundred poems of Kabir was first published in 1915, and has been a classic reprinted and widely circulated particularly in the west. 28 29 Scholars believe only six 30 of its hundred poems are authentic, 31 and they have questioned whether Tagore introduced then prevalent theological perspectives onto kabir, as he translated poems in early 20th century that he presumed to be of Kabir's. 32 The unauthentic poems, nevertheless belong to the Bhakti movement in medieval India, and may be by admirers of Kabir who lived later. 28 Philosophy edit some commentators suggest Kabir's philosophy to be a syncretic synthesis of Hinduism and Islam, but scholars widely state that this is false and a misunderstanding of Kabir. 6 :5 he adopted their terminology and concepts, but vigorously criticized them both. 6 :56 33 he questioned the need for any holy book, as stated in Kabir Granthavali as follows: reading book after book the whole world died, and none ever became learned! — Kabir Granthavali, xxxiii.3, Translated by Charlotte vaudeville 34 Many scholars interpret Kabir's philosophy to be questioning the need for religion, rather than attempting to propose either Hindu-muslim unity or an independent synthesis of a new religious tradition.
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20 They cover various aspects of life and call for a loving devotion for God. 6 :46 Kabir composed his verses with simple hindi words. Most of his work were concerned with devotion, mysticism and discipline. 21 Where spring, the lord of seasons reigneth, there the unstruck music sounds of itself, There the streams of light flow in all directions, few are the men who can cross to that shore! There, where millions london of Krishnas stand with hands folded, Where millions of Vishnus bow their heads, where millions of Brahmas are reading the vedas, Where millions of Shivas are lost in contemplation, where millions of Indras dwell in the sky, where the demi-gods and the. — Kabir,.57, diary Translated by rabindranath Tagore 22 Kabir and his followers named his verbally composed poems of wisdom as "bāņīs" (utterances). These include songs and couplets, called variously dohe, śalokā (Sanskrit: ślokā or sākhī (Sanskrit: sākşī). The latter term means "witness implying the poems to be evidence of the Truth. 23 Literary works with compositions attributed to kabir include kabir Bijak, kabir Parachai, sakhi Granth, adi Granth (Sikh and Kabir Granthawali (Rajasthan).
having touched him with feet and"ng Hinduism's most holy words (that became kabir's " guru-mantra were enough, even for the orthodox Ramananda to accept him as his disciple. Some legends assert that Kabir never married and led a celibate's life. Most scholars conclude from historical literature that this legend is also untrue, that Kabir was likely married, his wife probably was named Dhania, they had at least one son named Kamal and a daughter named Kamali. 17 Kabir's family is believed to have lived in the locality of Kabir Chaura in Varanasi. Kabīr maṭha a maṭha located in the back alleys of Kabir Chaura, celebrates his life and times. 18 Accompanying the property is a house named Nīrūṭīlā ( ) which houses Niru and Nima's graves. 19 Indian postage stamp portraying Kabir, 1952 Kabir's poems were in vernacular Hindi, essay borrowing from various dialects including avadhi, braj.
baby kabir was picked. 6 :45 2 11 However, modern scholarship has abandoned these legends for lack of historical evidence, and Kabir is widely accepted to have been born and brought up in a family of Muslim weavers. 6 :35 According to the Indologist Wendy doniger, kabir was born into a muslim family and various birth legends attempt to "drag Kabir back over the line from Muslim to hindu". 12 Some scholars state that Kabir's parents may have been recent converts to Islam, they and Kabir were likely unaware of Islamic orthodox tradition, and are likely to have been following the nath (Shaiva yogi) school of Hinduism. This view, while contested by other scholars, has been summarized by Charlotte vaudeville as follows: 13 Circumcised or not, kabir was officially a musalman, though it appears likely that some form of Nathism was his ancestral tradition. This alone would explain his relative ignorance of Islamic tenets, his remarkable acquaintance with Tantric-yoga practices and his lavish use of its esoteric jargon in his poems. He appears far more conversant with Nath-panthi basic attitudes and philosophy than with the Islamic orthodox tradition. — Charlotte vaudeville on Kabir (1974 13 Kabir is widely believed to have become the first disciple of the Bhakti poet-saint Swami ramananda in Varanasi, known for devotional vaishnavism with a strong bent to monist Advaita philosophy teaching that God was inside every person, everything. It is widely believed that the hindu saint Ramananda had clearly refused to accept him as his disciple officially but Kabir very cleverly accepted his disciplehood by covering himself in a rag and lying on the steps that led the ganges where ramananda was bound.
6 :4 When he died, both Hindus and Muslims he had inspired claimed him as theirs. 3 (There was dispute whether to cremate or bury his corpse). Kabir suggested that True god is with the person who is on the path of righteousness, considered all creatures on earth as his own self, and who is passively detached from the affairs of the world. 3 Kabir's legacy survives and continues through the kabir panth path of Kabir a religious community that recognises him as its founder and is one of the sant Mat sects. Its members are known as Kabir panthis. 7 Contents Early life and background edit The years of Kabir's birth supermarket and death are unclear. 8 9 :14 Some historians favor as the period Kabir lived, 6 9 :5 while others favor 14401518. 10 2 9 :106 Many legends, inconsistent in their details, exist about his birth family and early life.
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For other uses, see, kabir (disambiguation). An 1825 ce painting depicts Kabir weaving. Kabir hindi :, iast : Kabīr 1 ) was a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and night saint, whose writings influenced, hinduism's, bhakti movement and his verses are found in sikhism's scripture. 2 3 4, his early life was in a muslim family, but he was strongly influenced by his teacher, the hindu bhakti leader. 2, kabir is known for being critical of both. Hinduism and, islam, stating that the former was misguided by the. Vedas, and questioning their meaningless rites of initiation such as the sacred thread and circumcision respectively. 2 5, during his lifetime, he was threatened by both Hindus and Muslims for his views.