Ibn Khaldun edit businesses owned by responsible and organized merchants shall eventually surpass those owned by wealthy rulers. 14 Ibn Khaldun on economic growth and the ideals of Platonism Until Joseph. Spengler 's 1964 work "Economic Thought of Islam: Ibn Khaldun 15 Adam Smith (17231790) was considered the "Father of Economics". Now there is a second candidate, arab Muslim scholar Ibn Khaldun (13321406) of Tunisia, although what influence Khaldun had in the west is unclear. Arnold toynbee called Ibn Khaldun a "genius" who "appears to have been inspired by no predecessors and to have found no kindred souls among his d yet, in the Prolegomena ( Muqaddimat ) to his Universal History he has conceived and formulated a philosophy. His ideas on taxes bore a striking resemblance to supply-side economics ' laffer curve, which posits that beyond a certain point higher taxes discourage production and actually cause revenues to fall. 17 Nicole Oresme edit French philosopher and priest Nicolas d'Oresme (13201382) wrote de origine, natura, jure et mutationibus monetarum, about the origin, nature, law, and alterations of money. It is one of the earliest manuscripts on the concept of money.
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Whilst human laws might not impose sanctions for unfair dealing, divine law did, in his opinion. Duns Scotus edit One of Aquinas' main critics 13 was Duns Scotus (12651308 originally from Duns Scotland, who taught in Oxford, cologne, and Paris. In his work sententiae (1295 he thought it possible to be more precise than Aquinas in calculating a just price, emphasizing the costs of labor and expenses, although he recognized that the latter might be inflated by exaggeration because buyer and seller usually have different. If people did not benefit from a transaction, in Scotus' view, they would not trade. Scotus said merchants perform a necessary and useful social role by transporting goods and making them available to the public. 13 jean Buridan edit jean Buridan (French: byʁidɑ ; Latin Johannes Buridanus ;. 13) was a french priest. Buridanus looked at money from two angles: its essay metal value and its purchasing power, story which he acknowledged can vary. He argued that aggregated, not individual, demand and supply determine market prices. Hence, for him a just price was what the society collectively and not just one individual is willing to pay.
Main articles: Thomas Aquinas, scholasticism, duns Scotus, ibn Khaldun, muqaddimah, and Islamic economic list jurisprudence Thomas Aquinas edit Thomas Aquinas (12251274) was an Italian theologian and economic writer. He taught in both Cologne and Paris, and was part of a group of Catholic scholars known as the Schoolmen, who moved their enquiries beyond theology to philosophical and scientific debates. In the treatise summa Theologica Aquinas dealt with the concept of a just price, which he considered necessary for the reproduction of the social order. Similar in many ways to the modern concept of long run equilibrium, a just price was just sufficient to cover the costs of production, including the maintenance of a worker and his family. Aquinas argued it was immoral for sellers to raise their prices simply because buyers had a pressing need for a product. Aquinas discusses a number of topics in the format of questions and replies, substantial tracts dealing with Aristotle's theory. Questions 77 and 78 concern economic issues, primarily what a just price might be, and the fairness of a seller dispensing faulty goods. Aquinas argued against any form of cheating and recommended always paying compensation in lieu of good service clarification needed.
6 "It is clearly better that property should be private wrote Aristotle, "but the use of it common; and the special business resumes of the legislator is to create in men this benevolent disposition." In Politics book i, aristotle discusses the general nature of households and. For him there is a certain "art of acquisition" or "wealth-getting but because it clarification needed is the same many people are obsessed with its accumulation, and "wealth-getting" for one's household is "necessary and honorable while exchange on the retail trade for simple accumulation. 7 Writing of the people, aristotle stated that they as a whole thought acquisition of wealth ( chrematistike ) as being either the same as, or a principle of oikonomia household management" oikonomos 8 9 with oikos meaning "house" and with ( themis meaning "custom. 10 Aristotle himself highly disapproved of usury and cast scorn on making money through a monopoly. 11 Aristotle discarded Plato's credit theory of money for metallism, the theory that money derives its value from the purchasing power of the commodity upon which it is based, and is only an "instrument its sole purpose being a medium of exchange, which means. Not useful as a means to any of the necessities of life". 12 Economic thought in the middle Ages (5001500 AD) edit Thomas Aquinas (12251274) taught that high prices in response to high demand is theft.
360 BC) is a dialogue principally about household management and agriculture. Plato 's dialogue the republic (c. 380360 BC) describing an ideal city-state run by philosopher-kings contained references to specialization of labor and to production. Plato was the first to advocate the credit theory of money, that is, money as a unit of account for debt. Citation needed Aristotle 's Politics (c. 350 BC) analyzed different forms of the state ( monarchy, aristocracy, constitutional government, tyranny, oligarchy, and democracy ) as a critique of Plato's model of a philosopher-kings. Of particular interest for economists, Plato provided a blueprint of a society based on common ownership of resources. Aristotle viewed this model as an oligarchical anathema. Though Aristotle did certainly advocate holding many things in common, he argued that not everything could be, simply because of the "wickedness of human nature".
Proposal for supplies of office stationeries, computer peripherals
This field encompasses many disparate schools of economic thought. Ancient Greek writers such as the philosopher. Aristotle examined ideas about the art of wealth acquisition, and questioned whether property is best left in private or public hands. Middle Ages, scholasticists such as, thomas Aquinas argued that it was a moral obligation of businesses to sell goods at a just price citation needed, in the western world, economics was not a separate discipline, but part of philosophy until the 18th19th century, industrial revolution. Great divergence, which accelerated economic growth.
1, long before that, san from the, renaissance at least, economics as an intellectual discipline or science was dominated by western thinkers and their academic institutions, schooling economists from outside the west, although there are isolated instances in other societies. Ancient economic thought (before 500 AD) edit, main articles: Ancient economic thought, arthashastra, republic (dialogue), credit theory of money, politics (Aristotle), nicomachean Ethics, metallism, and Oeconomicus key people: Fan li, qin Shi huang, wang Anshi, mahavira, chanakya, xenophon, aristotle, and Plato Ancient Greece edit hesiod. China edit fan li (also known as tao zhu gong) (born 517 bc 2 an adviser to king goujian of yue, wrote on economic issues and developed a set of "golden" business rules. 3 India edit Chanakya (born 350 BC) wrote the Arthashastra, a treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy. 4 Greco-roman World edit Ancient Athens, an advanced city-state civilisation and progressive society, developed an embryonic model of democracy. 5 Xenophon 's (c. 430354 BC) Oeconomicus (c.
In-Kind Contributions, in-kind contributions are goods or services donated to the organization. These services/contributions can often be used as matching funds by many funding sources. Examples of contributions in kind include: corporate volunteers and pro-bono professional services use of a building and utilities advertising donation of computers, or other tech resources transportation, base the value of these services or goods on their market value. For example, a volunteer working in an unskilled position would be calculated at minimum wage dollar value. To indicate this in a budget, you might include a formula such as five volunteers X xxx hourly x 5 hours per week x 36 weeks xxxx.
In-kind contributions can impress reviewers as they provide evidence that your program enjoys community support. Indirect Costs for Grants Indirect costs for your grant (overhead) are costs for administration and facilities, such as: building costs Insurance Utilities Trash pickup, professional cleaning services, etc. Sometimes a percentage of total indirect costs can be reimbursed by a funding source but only if an indirect cost rate has been negotiated and approved by the grantor. Before including any indirect costs category in your budget, make sure you thoroughly read the rfp (request for proposal) and the grant guidelines. Those resources will tell you whether or not indirect costs apply to this grant program. For the study of past economic situations, see. The history of economic thought deals with different thinkers and theories in the subject that became political economy and economics, from the ancient world to the present day in the 21st Century.
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Use realistic but conservative figures, Equipment, funders often scrutinize the purchase of equipment. To help them understand equipment costs, give them documentation of the program need for the equipment. Equipment costs should be well defined and include specifications. For example, you might include a highspeed copier system to reproduce reports and other documents for committees, remote staff members, and volunteers. You should explain how the copier will help administer the program. Funders qualify or define supplies in different ways. Always check with the funding source before including this section. Explain how the supplies assist in running the program. Also, break down supplies into categories such as general office supplies, educational and training supplies, and computer supplies.
that are required by law include. Fica (Social Security and Medicare futa (Federal Unemployment Taxes/Insurance suta or sui (State Unemployment Taxes/Insurance and, workers Compensation (on-the-job accident insurance). Other benefits include medical insurance and paid sick leave. When listing fringe benefits in your budget, be sure to note Standard government Fringe benefits Package as Required by law, in case a reviewer does not know what fringe benefits include. Travel, many times travel can be included in the proposals budget. While travel expenses are a heavily scrutinized item, there are ways to get them approved. Make sure to provide precise formulas and documentation for why travel is necessary. Include the cost of a plane ticket, the cost of a hotel per night and the number of nights you will be staying, and a food allowance.
Direct Costs for Grants, direct costs for your grant are perhaps the most important part of your grants budget. They are the funds you are asking from the funding source. Direct costs usually include: Personnel, if your program requires that you cover staff costs, include that salary under the category personnel.". If you are hiring new employees, determining the actual salary can be tricky. One place to start is by checking with similar organizations to find out what they are paying program employees in similar positions. Indicate whether or not a salary is an annual one or an hourly wage. If hourly, show the breakdown of hours and weeks, such as 10.00 reviews per hour X 40 hours per week x 52 weeks 20,800).
How to Write an Attention Grabbing Business Proposal cover Letter
Hero Images/Getty Images, for many grant writers, who sail through most of their proposals easily, the budget can be a nail biter. However, knowing some basic principles of writing grants, such as how to remote present the costs of your project, can make writing a grant less stressful. Budget Preparation for Grants, print it on a new page. Align figures correctly, double-check your figures, include column headings, such as Budget Category, requested Funds, local Contributions, and Project Total. Organize your budget so it is easy to read and understand. Have another person look at your budget. Can he or she understand it? If not, go back to the drawing board.