As noted above, interlingua is claimed to be the most widely spoken naturalistic auxiliary language. 3 Interlingua's greatest advantage is that it is the most widely understood international auxiliary language besides Interlingua (IL). By virtue of its naturalistic (as opposed to schematic) grammar and vocabulary, allowing those familiar with a romance language, and educated speakers of English, to read and understand it without prior study. 28 Interlingua has active speakers on all continents, especially in south America and in Eastern and Northern Europe, most notably Scandinavia ; also in Russia and Ukraine. In Africa, interlingua has official representation in the republic of the congo. Citation needed There are copious Interlingua web pages, 29 including editions of wikipedia and wiktionary, and a number of periodicals, including Panorama in Interlingua from the Union Mundial pro Interlingua (UMI) and magazines of the national societies allied with. There are several active mailing lists, and Interlingua is also in use in certain Usenet newsgroups, particularly in the europa.* hierarchy.
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22 In 2000, the Interlingua institute was dissolved amid funding disputes with the umi; the American Interlingua society, established the following year, succeeded the institute and responded to ready new interest emerging in Mexico. 19 In the soviet bloc edit Interlingua was spoken and promoted in the soviet bloc, despite attempts to suppress the language. In the german Democratic Republic, government officials confiscated the letters and magazines that the umi sent to walter Rädler, the Interlingua representative there. 23 In czechoslovakia, július Tomin published his first article on Interlingua in the Slovak magazine Príroda a spoločnosť (Nature and Society) in 1971, after which he received several anonymous threatening letters. 24 he went on to become the czech Interlingua representative, teach Interlingua in the school system, and publish a series of articles and books. 25 Interlingua today edit see also: essay Community, below Today, interest in Interlingua has expanded from the scientific community to the general public. Individuals, governments, and private companies use Interlingua for learning and instruction, travel, online publishing, and communication across language barriers. Interlingua is promoted internationally by the Union Mundial pro Interlingua. Periodicals and books are produced by many national organizations, such as the societate American pro Interlingua, the svenska sällskapet för Interlingua, and the Union Brazilian pro Interlingua. 19 Community edit It is not certain how many people have an active knowledge of Interlingua.
16 Its role in promoting Interlingua was largely taken on by Science service, 14 which hired Gode as head of its newly formed Interlingua division. Blair, gode's close friend and colleague, became his assistant. 18 A successor organization, the Interlingua institute, 19 was founded in 1970 to promote Interlingua in the us and Canada. The new institute supported the work of other linguistic organizations, made considerable scholarly contributions and produced Interlingua summaries for scholarly and medical publications. One of its largest achievements was two immense volumes on phytopathology produced by the American Phytopathological Society in 1916 Interlingua had attracted many former adherents of other international-language projects, notably Occidental and Ido. The former Occidentalist Ric Berger founded The Union Mundial pro Interlingua ( umi ) in 1955, 19 and by the late 1950s, interest in Interlingua in Europe had already begun to overtake that in North America. Beginning in the 1980s, umi has held international conferences every two years (typical attendance at the earlier meetings was 50 to 100) and launched a daddy publishing programme that eventually produced over 100 volumes. Other Interlingua-language works were published by university presses in Sweden and Italy, and in the 1990s, Brazil and Switzerland. 20 21 several Scandinavian schools undertook projects that used Interlingua as a means of teaching the international scientific and intellectual vocabulary.
Success, decline, and resurgence edit An early practical application of Interlingua was the scientific newsletter Spectroscopia molecular, published from 1952 to 1980. 15 In 1954, Interlingua was used at reviews the second World Cardiological Congress in Washington,. For both written summaries and oral interpretation. Within a few years, it found similar use at nine further medical congresses. Between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, some thirty scientific and especially medical journals provided article presentation summaries in Interlingua. Science service, the publisher of Science newsletter at the time, published a monthly column in Interlingua from the early 1950s until Gode's death in 1970. In 1967, the International Organization for Standardization, which normalizes terminology, voted almost unanimously to adopt Interlingua as the basis for its dictionaries. 3 The iala closed its doors in 1953 but was not formally dissolved until 1956 or later.
3 14 four models were canvassed: 3 Model P highly naturalistic, with word forms unchanged from the prototypes Model M moderately naturalistic, similar to Occidental Model C slightly schematic, along the lines of novial Model K moderately schematic, similar to Ido (less schematic than Esperanto) The results of the survey were striking. The two more schematic models were rejected k overwhelmingly. Of the two naturalistic models, m received somewhat more support than. Iala decided on a compromise between p and m, with certain elements. 14 Martinet took up a position at Columbia university in 1948, and Gode took on the last phase of Interlingua's development. 11 The vocabulary and grammar of Interlingua were first presented in 1951, when iala published the finalized Interlingua grammar and the 27,000-word InterlinguaEnglish Dictionary (IED). In 1954, iala published an introductory manual entitled Interlingua a prime vista interlingua at First Sight. Interlingua as presented by the iala is very close to peanos Interlingua (Latino sine flexione both in its grammar and especially in its vocabulary. Accordingly, the very name "Interlingua" was kept, yet a distinct abbreviation was adopted: ia instead.
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By 1937, the members had made the decision to homework create a new language, to the surprise of the world's paper interlanguage community. 13 to that point, much of the debate had been equivocal on the decision to use naturalistic (e.g., peanos Interlingua, novial and Occidental ) or systematic (e.g., Esperanto and Ido ) words. During the war years, proponents of a naturalistic interlanguage won out. The first support was Thorndike's paper; the second was a concession by proponents of the systematic languages that thousands of words were already present in many, or even a majority, of the european languages. Their argument was that systematic derivation of words was a procrustean bed, forcing the learner to unlearn and re-memorize a new derivation scheme when a usable vocabulary was already available. This finally convinced supporters of the systematic languages, and iala from that point assumed the position that a naturalistic language would be best. 3 At the outbreak of World War ii, iala's research activities were moved from liverpool to new York, where.
Clark Stillman established a new research staff. 11 Stillman, with the assistance of Alexander Gode, developed a prototyping technique an objective methodology for selecting and standardizing vocabulary based on a comparison of control languages. 3 In 1943 Stillman left for war work and Gode became Acting Director of Research. 11 iala began to develop models of the proposed language, the first of which were presented in Morris's General Report in 1945. to 1948, French linguist André martinet was Director of Research. During this period iala continued to develop models and conducted polling to determine the optimal form of the final language. In 1946, iala sent an extensive survey to more than 3,000 language teachers and related professionals on three continents.
With a "concession rule" that required participants to make a certain number of concessions, early debates at iala sometimes grew from heated to explosive. 3 At the second International Interlanguage congress, held in Geneva in 1931, iala began to break new ground; 27 recognized linguists signed a testimonial of support for iala's research program. An additional eight added their signatures at the third congress, convened in Rome in 1933. 3 That same year, herbert. Shenton and Edward.
Thorndike became influential in iala's work by authoring key studies in the interlinguistic field. 11 The first steps towards the finalization of Interlingua were taken in 1937, when a committee of 24 eminent linguists from 19 universities published Some Criteria for an International Language and Commentary. However, the outbreak of World War ii in 1939 cut short the intended biannual meetings of the committee. 3 development of a new language edit Originally, the association had not set out to create its own language. Its goal was to identify which auxiliary language already available was best suited for international communication, and how to promote it most effectively. However, after ten years of research, more and more members of iala concluded that none of the existing interlanguages were up to the task.
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history edit yardage main article: History of Interlingua the American heiress Alice vanderbilt Morris (18741950) became interested in linguistics and the international auxiliary language movement in the early 1920s, and in 1924, morris and her husband, dave hennen Morris, established the non-profit International Auxiliary language Association. Their aim was to place the study of ials on a scientific basis. Morris developed the research program of iala in consultation with Edward Sapir, william Edward Collinson, and Otto jespersen. 10 International Auxiliary language Association edit The iala became a major supporter of mainstream American linguistics, funding, for example, numerous studies by sapir, collinson, and Morris Swadesh in the 1930s and 1940s. Alice morris edited several of these studies and provided much of iala's financial support. 11 iala also received support from such prestigious groups as the carnegie corporation, the ford foundation, the research Corporation, and the rockefeller foundation. 12 In its early years, iala concerned itself with three tasks: finding other organizations around the world with similar goals; building a library of books about languages and interlinguistics ; and comparing extant ials, including Esperanto, esperanto ii, ido, peanos Interlingua (Latino sine flexione novial. In pursuit of the last goal, it conducted parallel studies of these languages, with comparative studies of national languages, under the direction of scholars at American and European universities. 11 It also arranged conferences with proponents of these ials, who debated features and goals of their respective languages.
In one 1974 study, an Interlingua class translated a spanish text that students who had taken 150 hours of Spanish found too difficult to understand. 3 Gopsill has suggested that Interlingua's freedom from irregularities allowed the resume students to grasp the mechanisms of language quickly. 3 9 Words in Interlingua retain their original form from the source language; they are altered as little as possible to fit Interlingua's phonotactics. Citation needed each word retains its original spelling, pronunciation, and meanings. For this reason, Interlingua is frequently termed a naturalistic ial. Citation needed When compared to natural languages, Interlingua most resembles Spanish. Citation needed according to whom?
is used to extract and standardize the most widespread word or words for a concept found in a set of control languages : English, french, italian, spanish and Portuguese, with German and Russian as secondary references. Words from any language are eligible for inclusion, so long as their internationality is shown by their presence in these control languages. Hence, interlingua includes such diverse word forms as Japanese geisha and samurai, arabic califa, guugu yimithirr gangurru (Interlingua: kanguru and Finnish sauna. 6 Interlingua combines this pre-existing vocabulary with a minimal grammar based on the control languages. People with a good knowledge of a romance language, or a smattering of a romance language plus a good knowledge of the international scientific vocabulary can frequently understand it immediately on reading or hearing. The immediate comprehension of Interlingua, in turn, makes it unusually easy to learn. Speakers of other languages can also learn to speak and write Interlingua in a short time, thanks to its simple grammar and regular word formation using a small number of roots and affixes. 9 Once learned, Interlingua can be used to learn other related languages quickly and easily, and in some studies, even to understand them immediately. Research with Swedish students has shown that, after learning Interlingua, they can translate elementary texts from Italian, portuguese, and Spanish.
Interlingua was developed to combine a simple, mostly regular grammar 4 5 with a vocabulary common to the widest possible range of western European languages, 6 making it unusually easy to learn, at least for those whose native languages were sources of Interlingua's vocabulary and. 7, conversely, it is used as a rapid introduction to many natural languages. 3, interlingua literature maintains that (written) Interlingua is comprehensible to the hundreds of millions of people who speak. Romance languages, 8 though it is actively spoken by only a few hundred. 1 The name Interlingua comes from the latin words inter, meaning "between and lingua, meaning "tongue" or "language". These morphemes long are identical in Interlingua. Thus, "Interlingua" would mean "between language".
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Not to be confused with, interlingue, interlanguage, or, interlingual machine translation. This article is about the auxiliary language created by the. International Auxiliary language Association. For other uses, see, interlingua (disambiguation). Interlingua ( /ɪntərlɪŋɡwə/ ; iso 639 language codes ia, ina ) is an, italic international auxiliary language (ial developed between 19 by the. International Auxiliary language Association (iala). It ranks among the top most widely essay used ials (along with. Esperanto and, ido and is the most widely used naturalistic, ial: 3 in other words, its vocabulary, grammar and other characteristics are derived from natural languages, rather than being centrally planned.