16 he also"d Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard, the successor of Claude bernard at the Chair of Experimental Medicine in the collège de France, etc. Bergson served as a juror with Florence meyer Blumenthal in awarding the Prix Blumenthal, a grant given between 19 to painters, sculptors, decorators, engravers, writers, and musicians. 20 Relationship with James and Pragmatism edit bergson traveled to london in 1908 and met there with William James, the harvard philosopher who was Bergson's senior by seventeen years, and who was instrumental in calling the attention of the Anglo-American public to the work. The two became great friends. James's impression of Bergson is given in his Letters under date of : "So modest and unpretending a man but such a genius intellectually! I have the strongest suspicions that the tendency which he has brought to a focus, will end by prevailing, and that the present epoch will be a sort of turning point in the history of philosophy." As early as 1880, james had contributed an article. Four years later, a couple of articles by him appeared in the journal Mind : "What is an Emotion?" and "On some Omissions of Introspective psychology". Bergson"d the first two of these articles in his 1889 work, time and Free will.
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He detailed in this essay his philosophical program, realized in the Creative evolution. 16 On the death of Gabriel Tarde, the sociologist and philosopher, in 1904, bergson succeeded him in the Chair of Modern Philosophy. From 4 to 8 September of that year he visited Geneva, attending the second International Congress of Philosophy, when he lectured on The mind and Thought: a philosophical Illusion (Le cerveau et la pensée: une illusion philosophique). An illness prevented essay his visiting Germany from attending the Third Congress held at heidelberg. His third major work, creative evolution, the most widely known and most discussed of his books, appeared in 1907. Pierre Imbart de la tour remarked that Creative evolution was a milestone of new direction in thought. Citation needed by 1918, Alcan, the publisher, had issued twenty-one editions, making an average of two editions per annum for ten years. Following the appearance of this book, bergson's popularity increased enormously, not only in academic circles but among the general reading public. At that time, bergson had already made an extensive study of biology including the theory of fecundation (as shown in the first chapter of the Creative evolution which had only recently emerged,. 1885 no small feat for a philosopher specializing in the history of philosophy, in particular Greek and Roman philosophy. 16 he also most certainly had read, apart from Darwin, haeckel, from whom he retained his idea of a unity of life and of the ecological solidarity between all living beings, 16 as well as Hugo de Vries, from whom he"d his mutation theory.
At the night first International Congress of Philosophy, held in Paris during the first five days of August 1900, bergson read a short, but important, paper, "Psychological Origins of the belief in the law of causality" ( Sur les origines psychologiques de notre croyance. In 1900 Felix Alcan published a work which had previously appeared in the revue de paris, entitled laughter ( le rire one of the most important of Bergson's minor productions. This essay on the meaning of comedy stemmed from a lecture which he had given in his early days in the auvergne. The study of it is essential to an understanding of Bergson's views of life, and its passages dealing with the place of the artistic in life are valuable. The main thesis of the work is that laughter is a corrective evolved to make social life possible for human beings. We laugh at people who fail to adapt to the demands of society if it seems their failure is akin to an inflexible mechanism. Comic authors have exploited this human tendency to laugh in various ways, and what is common to them is the idea that the comic consists in there being "something mechanical encrusted on the living". 18 19 In 1901 the Académie des sciences morales et politiques elected Bergson as a member, and he became a member of the Institute. In 1903 he contributed to the revue de métaphysique et de morale a very important essay entitled Introduction to metaphysics ( Introduction à la metaphysique which is useful as a preface to the study of his three large books.
16 Although Bergson had previously endorsed Lamarckism and its theory of the heritability of acquired characteristics, he came to prefer Darwin's hypothesis of gradual variations, which were more compatible with his continual vision of life. 16 In 1896 he published his second major work, entitled Matter and Memory. This rather difficult work investigates the function of the brain and undertakes an analysis of perception and memory, leading up to a careful consideration of the problems of the relation of body and mind. Bergson had spent years of research in preparation for each of his three large works. This is especially obvious in Matter and Memory, where he showed a thorough acquaintance with the extensive pathological investigations which had been carried out during the period. In 1898 Bergson became maître de conférences at his alma mater, École normale supérieure, and later in the same year received a promotion to a professorship. The year 1900 saw him installed as Professor at the collège de France, where he accepted the Chair of Greek and Roman Philosophy in succession to Charles lévêque ( fr ).
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16 he obtained there the degree of licence ès lettres, and this was followed by that of agrégation de philosophie in 1881 from the University of Paris. The same year he received a teaching appointment at the lycée in Angers, the ancient capital of Anjou. Two years later he settled at the lycée blaise-pascal (Clermont-Ferrand) ( writing fr ) in Clermont-Ferrand, capital of the puy-de-dôme département. The year after his arrival at Clermont-Ferrand Bergson displayed his ability in the humanities by the publication of an edition of extracts from Lucretius, with a critical study of the text and of the materialist cosmology of the poet (1884 a work whose repeated editions. attest to its value in promoting Classics among French youth. While teaching and lecturing in this part of his country (the auvergne region bergson found time for private study and original work. He crafted his dissertation Time and Free will, which was submitted, along with a short Latin thesis on boutique Aristotle ( quid Aristoteles de loco senserit, "On the concept of Place in Aristotle for his doctoral degree which was awarded by the University of Paris.
The work was published in the same year by félix Alcan. He also gave courses in Clermont-Ferrand on the Pre-socratics, in particular on Heraclitus. 16 Bergson dedicated Time and Free will to jules Lachelier ( fr ) (18321918 then public education minister, a disciple of Félix ravaisson (18131900) and the author of a philosophical work On the founding of Induction ( du fondement de l'induction, 1871). Lachelier endeavoured "to substitute everywhere force for inertia, life for death, and liberty for fatalism". (Bergson owed much to both of these teachers of the École normale supérieure. Compare his memorial address on ravaisson, who died in 1900.) Bergson settled again in Paris in 1888, 17 and after teaching for some months at the municipal college, known as the college rollin, he received an appointment at the lycée henri-quatre, where he remained for. There, he read Darwin and gave a course on his theories.
He then replaced Gabriel Tarde in the Chair of Modern Philosophy, which he held until 1920. The public attended his open courses in large numbers. Education and career edit Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience (Dissertation, 1889) quid Aristoteles de loco senserit (Dissertation, 1889) Bergson attended the lycée fontanes (known as the lycée condorcet 187018present) in Paris from 1868 to 1878. He had previously received a jewish religious education. 13 Between 14 and 16, however, he lost his faith. According to hude (1990 this moral crisis is tied to his discovery of the theory of evolution, according to which humanity shares common ancestry with modern primates, a process sometimes construed as not needing a creative deity.
14 While at the lycée bergson won a prize for his scientific work and another, in 1877 when he was eighteen, for the solution of a mathematical problem. His solution was published the following year in nouvelles Annales de mathématiques. 15 It was his first published work. After some hesitation as to whether his career should lie in the sphere of the sciences or that of the humanities, he decided in favour of the latter, to the dismay of his teachers. 16 When he was nineteen, he entered the École normale supérieure. During this period, he read Herbert Spencer.
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The bereksohns were a famous Jewish entrepreneurial family 9 of write Polish descent. Henri bergson's great-great-grandfather, szmul jakubowicz sonnenberg, called Zbytkower, was a prominent banker and a protégé of Stanisław ii augustus, 10 11 King of Poland from 1764 to 1795. Henri bergson's family lived in London for a few years after his birth, and he obtained an early familiarity with the English language from his mother. Before he was nine, his parents settled in France, henri becoming a naturalized French citizen. Henri bergson married louise neuberger, a cousin of Marcel Proust (18711922 in 1891. (The novelist served as best man at Bergson's wedding.) 12 Henri and louise bergson had a daughter, jeanne, born deaf in 1896. Bergson's sister, mina bergson (also known as moina mathers married the English occult author Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, a founder of the hermetic Order of the golden Dawn, and the couple later relocated to paris as well. Bergson lived the quiet life of a french professor, marked by the publication of his four principal works: in 1889, time and Free will ( Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience ) in 1896, matter and Memory ( Matière et mémoire ).
Grand-Croix de la legion d'honneur. Bergson's great popularity created a controversy in France where his views were seen as opposing the secular and scientific attitude adopted by the republic's officials. 6, contents, biography edit, overview edit, bergson was born in the rue lamartine in Paris, not far from the. Palais Garnier (the old Paris opera house) in 1859. His father, the pianist. Michał bergson, was of a, polish Jewish background (originally bearing the name bereksohn). His great-grandmother, temerl Bergson, was a well-known patroness and benefactor of Polish Jewry, especially those associated with the. 7 8 His mother, katherine levison, daughter of a yorkshire doctor, systems was from an English and Irish Jewish background.
of a right angled triangle with sides 3,4 and. The relationship cannot be determined without further information). For other uses, see. Henri-louis Bergson (French: bɛʁksɔn ; ) was. French, jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until. 4, bergson is known for his influential arguments that processes of immediate experience and intuition are more significant than abstract rationalism and science for understanding reality. He was awarded the 1927, nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented". In 1930 France awarded him its highest honour, the.
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