Saab master thesis

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It divides the torque between the wheels according to the available grip, with a maximum lockup. The basic suspension layout of the delta 4WD remains the same as in the rest of the two-wheel drive delta range: MacPherson strut type independent suspension with dual-rate dampers and helicoidal springs, with the struts and springs set slightly off-centre. The suspension mounting provided more isolation by incorporating flexible rubber links. Progressive rebound bumpers were adopted, while the damper rates, front and rear toe-in and the relative angle between springs and dampers have all been altered. The steering was power-assisted rack and pinion. Integrale 8v edit 1989 Lancia delta hf integrale 8V at the birmingham Motor Show.

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26 As the second generation was ready to be launched in 1993, after a career of 13 years the front-wheel drive delta was phased out at the end of 1992. Production of the hf integrale would continue for two years more. Four-wheel-drive hf variants edit hf 4wd edit 1986 Delta hf 4wd group B online rallying was dropped at the end of the 1986 season, but the delta hf 4WD was not suited to Group A rallying. The delta hf turbo became the road car writing top of the delta range. There is very little to distinguish the car from the earlier 'turbo. E.' apart from the four-headlight system, fog lamps mounted in the front spoiler, 4WD badging on the rear hatch, small side skirts and two raised air intakes on the bonnet (hood). The later car is therefore virtually indistinguishable from the.6-litre hf turbo. In the delta hf 4X4, lancia opted for a four-wheel drive system with an in-built torque-splitting action. Three differentials were used. Drive to the front wheels is linked through a free-floating differential; drive to the rear wheels is transmitted via a 56/44 front/rear torque-splitting Ferguson viscous-coupling-controlled epicyclic central differential. At the rear wheels is a torsen (torque sensing) rear differential.

25 The front-wheel drive range was reduced to three models, lx,. And hf turbo; all three of them had gained body-colour side skirts, dual body-colour wing mirrors, athermic glass, electric windows and seat belts. Lx and. Donned a chrome grille, the louvered bonnet from the hf integrale 8v and optional 8-spoke diamond-cut alloy wheels from the dedra. Updated colour and trim included green and blue "Metallescente" supermarket mica paint and glen plaid cloth upholstery. The delta lx abandoned the.3 in favour of a revised version of the.5-litre engine. Dual round headlights and the domed, vented bonnet from the hf integrale 16v made the hf turbo look almost like an hf integrale.

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E., and gender given similarly complete standard equipment comprising such features as an oil pressure gauge, boost pressure gauge and power steering. In September 1987 the hf 4WD was replaced by the more capable delta hf integrale, which in turn evolved into the 16-valve delta hf integrale 16v in March 1989. A new sporty trim level for the.3 was added in may 1990, the delta personalizzata, available in red or white with contrasting twin pinstripe and electric blue cloth upholstery; standard equipment comprised body-colour wing mirrors, tachometer, clock and sport steering wheel. 23 Later that year the turbo ds,. And hf turbo benefited of extended standard equipment, new velour and Alcantara trim; leather Recaro seats became available on the hf integrale. 1992 Delta. 1991 revisions edit In June 1991 the last update of the delta went on sale, almost twelve years after its 1979 début.

E., with 108 ps and 140 PS respectively. Deeper changes had been made to the. Engine: the cylinder head had been rotated 180, bringing the exhaust side to the front for better cooling, and the whole engine was canted forward 18 to lower its centre of gravity. Delta hf turbo was updated to hf 4WD looks and interior, from which it differed mainly for the square headlights and single exhaust. Delta turbo ds marked the introduction of the first diesel engine on the delta. This was a 1,929 cc 8-valve four-cylinder from the Prisma, with an output of 80 PS; it used a kkk turbocharger with wastegate valve, an intercooler and an oil cooler. The turbo ds was positioned on the market like the.

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When in later years the more powerful, four-wheel-drive hf gps models were introduced the hf turbo remained on sale alongside them. 1986 facelift edit post-1986 Lancia delta hf turbo The hf turbo soon lost its crown as top-of-the-range delta, as the turbocharged.0-litre and four-wheel drive delta hf 4WD was unveiled at the April 1986 Turin Motor Show. Some of the features of the hf 4WD previewed a major mid-cycle refresh for the entire delta range, announced in may 1986 and put tolstoy on sale in June. 21 22 New enveloping bumpers—the front one with provisions for integrated fog lights —gave the car a more modern look; the entire front end was changed with a new grille and new headlight covers, which were slanted forward and protruded from the bodywork. The roof spoiler introduced in 1982 was removed. Seven models composed the 1986 range:.3,.3,.5 Automatica,.

E., hf turbo, hf 4wd and turbo. Entry-level model was the.3; the 1,301 cc engine had revised intake and exhaust system, fuel cut-off, a new carburettor and breakerless ignition. It was also available on the more upscale.3. Similar changes were made to the powertrain of the delta.5 Automatica. The delta gt and hf turbo were given Weber iaw integrated electronic ignition and fuel injection system to become the delta. And the delta hf turbo.

The first performance delta was the delta hf, which was introduced in July 1983 and went on sale in September 15 after a first appearance at the Frankfurt Motor Show. 16 the hf acronym—last used on the Stratos —stood for "High Fidelity and had been used on performance version of Lancia cars since 1966. 17 It was front-wheel drive and powered by a turbocharged version of the.6-litre engine from the delta gt; the system used a garrett tbo- 225 turbocharger with wastegate valve, an air-to-air heat exchanger, a blow-through twin-choke weber carburetor and Marelli microplex ignition with pre-ignition. To withstand the additional stress deriving from turbocharging upgrades were made to the oil system, with increased capacity and an oil cooler, and to the heads with sodium-filled valves. The gearbox was a zf 5-speed unit.

Dampers, springs and steering were retuned, and the tyres were wide 175/65 Michelin trx on R 340 alloy wheels. In true lancia tradition the exterior of the hf was relatively understated: changes were limited to silver "HF" badging on the grille, a deeper chin spoiler, black trim as on the gt, black roof drip rail mouldings, black side skirts with small silver "turbo" badges. The cabin featured a leather-covered steering wheel and supplementary digital instrumentation with bar indicators; the upholstery material was the usual Zegna fabric, and Recaro sport seats covered in the same cloth optional. About ten thousand Delta hf were made, in a two-year production period. 18 A special limited edition of the hf, named hf martini, was launched at the march 1984 Geneva motor Show. 19 to celebrate the rally victories of the lancia-martini rally 037 it was painted white with a martini stripe on the sides below the door handles, and carried Martini-coloured badging; Recaro sport seats were standard. Only 150 were produced between 19Delta hf turbo edit In October 1985 Lancia unveiled alongside the road-going Delta S4 a new version of the hf, renamed Delta hf turbo 18 in view of the four-wheel-drive hf début awaited after the next summer. To address some criticisms 20 the car was given less subdued styling features and more generous equipment to differentiate it from the other Deltas: red "HF turbo" scripts on the grille, the side skirts and the rear hatch, a three-spoke sport steering wheel, dual wing. Price, technical specifications and performance remained mostly unchanged.

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It was powered by a 1585 cc, 105 ps dohc engine with Marelli digiplex ignition; lower profile tyres, retuned suspensions and disk brakes on all four wheels completed the package. Standard equipment was the richest available and some optionals like air conditioning were exclusive to the gt; the cabin was upholstered in Zegna cloth. Outside details like a "GT" badge on the right side of the grille, matte black door handles and window trim distinguished it from other Deltas. As the 5-speed 1500, 4-speed 1300 and lx versions were dropped — the latter only to be reintroduced in April 19 lx, with revised equipment—the range was now composed of three models. On the 200,000th Delta left the Chivasso factory. 14 golf Delta hf edit a 1984 Delta hf, originally a lancia uk press car. Despite sporting Martini stripes this is not one year of the 1984 hf martini limited editions, which had different graphics and badging.

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8 19, rear view Sales started in October 1979; 43,000 were sold in 1980, and by the end of 1981 production had exceeded 100,000. 9 At the beginning of 1982 as an automatic transmission option was added, the 1500 Automatica ; its 3-speed was built by lancia in the verrone plant and was already being installed on Betas. 10 In March the top-of-the-line 1500 lx trim level joined the lineup; it featured extended convenience equipment, metallic paint, 14-inch alloy wheels penned by giugiaro and wool cloth upholstery in a shakespeare chequered fabric specially designed by Italian fashion house zegna. 11 Two months after the trim level was extended to the.3-litre engine too, which simultaneously increased its output to 78 PS thanks to a raised compression ratio and electronic ignition. 12 1982 facelift edit facelifted Lancia delta november 1982 brought the first facelift for the delta. 13 The bumpers were changed from three-piece sheet moulded compound to one-piece thermoplastic polymer, the front one was redesigned with a more prominent lower spoiler; another aerodynamic addition was a flat body-colour spoiler applied to the rear part of the roof. Other changes included the deletion of the anodised fascia between the rear tail lights and a 40 kg weight reduction on all models. Inside there were new seats and, on the range topping models, an optional digital trip computer. Concurrently the delta gt 1600 was launched, 13 the car's first sporting variant.

around four meters in length. Design was by giorgetto giugiaro 's Italdesign. Its platform put together MacPherson suspension developed for the beta with four-cylinder, sohc engines derived from the fiat Ritmo. The fiat engines were revised by lancia engineers with a weber twin-choke carburettor, a new inlet manifold, exhaust system and ignition. To achieve its market positioning the delta offered features uncommon in the segment, as fully independent suspension, rack and pinion steering, available air conditioning, optional split-folding rear seat, height-adjustable steering wheel, and defogger. 4 Its three-piece body-coloured bumpers made from polyester resin sheet moulding compound were claimed by lancia to be a first in the industry. The heating and ventilation were developed with help from saab, experts in the field. 5 Debut edit Whilst details about the car were known since the spring, 3 the lancia delta was unveiled to the public at the september 1979 Frankfurt Motor Show, 6 At launch three models were offered: the base delta 1300 4-speed, with a 1,301 cc 75 ps. The delta was met with warm reception at the Frankfurt unveiling by the Italian press and by the german one 7 to booth; in December it was awarded the car of the year 1980 recognition by a jury of 53 automotive journalists from 16 European.

Between 19, it was also sold. Sweden by, saab Automobile, badged as the saab-Lancia 600. The delta was voted the 1980. European Car of summary the year. A special, delta hf integrale version was a four-wheel drive hot hatch with a turbocharged petrol engine. Modified versions of the hf dominated the world Rally Championship, scoring 46 wrc victories overall and winning the constructors Championship a record six times in a row from 1987 to 1992, in addition to Drivers' Championship titles for Juha kankkunen (19 ) and miki biasion. The lancia delta S4, which the works team ran immediately prior to the hf 4wd and Integrale models' world championship careers from the season-ending 1985 rac rally until the end of the 1986 season, while sharing the same name and appearance, was a group.

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The, lancia delta is a small family car produced by, italian automobile manufacturer, lancia in three generations. The first resume generation produced between 19, the second generation from 1993 to 1999, and the third generation from 2008 to 2014. The delta was first shown at the. Frankfurt Motor Show in 1979. 1, the delta dominated the, world Rally Championship during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The homologation requirements of, group A regulations meant marketing road-going versions of these competition cars — the lancia delta hf 4wd and hf integrale. A total of 44,296 Integrales were produced. Contents, first generation edit, the first Delta tipo 831 ) was a five-door hatchback, designed. Giorgetto giugiaro and released in 1979.

Saab master thesis
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