70 In the context of wine production, terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used, elevation and shape of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions, and the local yeast cultures. 71 The range of possible combinations of these factors can result in great differences among wines, influencing the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes as well. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. 72 However, flavor differences are less desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency takes precedence. Such producers try to minimize differences in sources of grapes through production techniques such as micro-oxygenation, tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin-film evaporation, and spinning cones. 73 Classification edit main article: Classification of wine wine grapes on a vine regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world.
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When one of these varieties is used as resume the predominant grape (usually defined by law as minimums of 75 to 85 the result is a " varietal " as opposed to a "blended" wine. Blended pourquoi wines are not necessarily inferior to varietal wines, rather they are a different style of wine-making. 69 Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. Labrusca (of which the concord grape is a cultivar. Riparia are native north American grapes usually grown to eat fresh or for grape juice, jam, or jelly, and only occasionally made into wine. Hybridization is different from grafting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European. Vinifera vines that have been grafted onto north American species' rootstock, a common practice due to their resistance to phylloxera, a root louse that eventually kills the vine. In the late 19th century, most of Europe's vineyards (excluding some of the driest in the south) were devastated by the infestation, leading to widespread vine deaths and eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wine-producing region in the world except in Argentina, the canary Islands and Chile —the only places not yet exposed to the insect.
63 mead was produced in ancient history throughout Europe, africa and Asia, 64 and was known in Europe before grape wine. 65 Starch-based "wine" and wine-based products edit Other beverages called "wine such as barley wine and rice wine (e.g. Sake are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than traditional wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these latter cases, the term "wine" refers to the similarity in alcohol content rather than to the production process. 66 The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. 67 Some uk supermarkets have been criticised for selling list wine based drinks, which only contain 75 wine, but which are still marketed as wine. The International Organisation of Vine and Wine requires that a "wine based drink" must contain a minimum of 75 wine, but producers do not have to divulge the nature of the remaining. 68 Grape varieties edit Grape vineyard main article: List of grape varieties Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the european species Vitis vinifera, such as Pinot noir, chardonnay, cabernet sauvignon, gamay and Merlot.
There are three primary ways to produce rosé wine: skin contact (allowing dark grape skins to stain the wort saignée (removing juice from the must early in fermentation and continuing fermentation of the juice separately and blending (uncommon and discouraged in most wine growing regions). Rosé wines can be made still, semi-sparkling, or sparkling, with a wide range of sweetness levels from dry Provençal rosé to sweet White zinfandels and blushes. Rosé wines are made from a wide variety of grapes all over the world. 61 62 Fruit wines edit main article: Fruit wine wines from other salon fruits, such as apples and berries, are usually named after the fruit from which they are produced combined with the word "wine" (for example, apple wine and elderberry wine ) and are generically. Other than the grape varieties traditionally used for wine-making, most fruits naturally lack either sufficient fermentable sugars, relatively low acidity, yeast nutrients needed to promote or maintain fermentation, or a combination of these three characteristics. This is probably one of the main reasons why wine derived from grapes has historically been more prevalent by far than other types, and why specific types of fruit wine have generally been confined to regions in which the fruits were native or introduced for. Mead (honey wine) edit main article: mead mead, also called honey wine, is created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops. As long as the primary substance fermented is honey, the drink is considered mead.
Other white wines are blended from multiple varieties; tokay, sherry, and sauternes are examples of these. Dark-skinned grapes may be used to produce white wine if the wine-maker is careful not to let the skin stain the wort during the separation of the pulp-juice. Pinot noir, for example, is commonly used to produce champagne. Dry (non-sweet) white wine is the most common, derived from the complete fermentation of the wort. Sweet wines are produced when the fermentation is interrupted before all the grape sugars are converted into alcohol. Sparkling wines, which are mostly white wines, are produced by not allowing carbon dioxide from the fermentation to escape during fermentation, which takes place in the bottle rather than in the barrel. Rosé wine edit main article: Rosé wine a rosé wine incorporates some of the color from the grape skins, but not enough to qualify it as a red wine. It may be the oldest known type of wine, as it is the most straightforward to make with the skin contact method. The pink color can range from a pale orange to a vivid near-purple, depending on the varietals used and wine-making techniques.
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48 The georgian word goes back to Proto-kartvelian * ɣwino, 49 which is either a borrowing from Proto-Indo-european or the lexeme was specifically borrowed from Proto-Armenian * ɣeinyo, whence Armenian gini. An alternate hypothesis by fähnrich supposes * ɣwino - a native kartvelian word derived from the verbal root * ɣun - to bend. 59 see * ɣwino - for more. All these theories place the origin of the word in the same geographical location, Trans-caucasia, that has been established movie based on archeological and number biomolecular studies as the origin of viticulture. Variants edit red wine edit main article: Red wine The red-wine production process involves extraction of color and flavor components from the grape skin.
Red wine is made from dark-colored grape varieties. The actual color of the wine can range from violet, typical of young wines, through red for mature wines, to brown for older red wines. The juice from most purple grapes is actually greenish-white; the red color comes from anthocyan pigments (also called anthocyanins ) present in the skin of the grape; exceptions are the relatively uncommon teinturier varieties, which actually have red flesh and produce red juice. White wine edit main article: White wine White wine can be straw-yellow, yellow-green, or yellow-gold. 60 Fermentation of the non-colored grape pulp produces white wine. The grapes from which white wine is produced are typically green or yellow. Some varieties are well-known, such as the Chardonnay, sauvignon, and riesling.
Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production. 34 The romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. 35 In medieval Europe, the roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the mass. Monks in France made wine for years, aging it in caves. 36 An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine.
37 Etymology edit map showing the word for wine in European languages. The English word "wine" comes from the Proto-germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the latin vinum, "wine" or grape) vine itself derived from the Proto-Indo-european stem * win-o- (cf. Armenian :, gini ; Ancient Greek : ονος oinos ; aeolic Greek : ϝ οῖνος woinos ; Hittite : wiyana ; Lycian : oino ). The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo μέθυϝος νέϝ 41 42 meaning "in (the month or festival) of the new wine and wo-no-wa-ti-si, 43 meaning "wine garden written in Linear b inscriptions. Linear b also includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine,. Ultimate Indo-european origin of the word is the subject of continued debate. Some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in Indo-european languages (e.g. Georgian ɣvinɔ and Semitic ( *wayn ; Hebrew jaiin pointing to the possibility of a common origin of the word denoting "wine" in these language families.
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Literary references to wine word are abundant in Homer (8th century bc, but possibly relating earlier compositions Alkman (7th century bc and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. 31 Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day china, dating from the second and first millennia. 32 Pressing wine after the harvest; Tacuinum Sanitatis, 14th century The first known mention of grape -based wines in India is from the late 4th-century bc writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu. 33 year The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances.
A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of the seventh millennium. Pottery jars from essay the neolithic site of jiahu, henan, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. 27 28 If these beverages, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, which was introduced there 6000 years later. 27 The spread of wine culture westwards was most probably due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the mediterranean coast of what are today syria, lebanon, israel, and Palestine. 29 The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and then throughout the mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 bc discovered by robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact. 30 As the first great traders in wine ( cherem the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina. Georgian kvevri ancient wine vessel The earliest remains of Apadana palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 bc include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine.
was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians 17 and was used by both the Greek cult of dionysus and the romans in their Bacchanalia ; Judaism also incorporates it in the kiddush and Christianity in the eucharist. Contents History edit main article: History of wine The earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to bc was found on the territory of modern georgia. 18 19 Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was relatively later, likely having taken place in the southern caucasus (which encompasses Armenia, georgia and azerbaijan or the west Asian region between Eastern Turkey, and northwestern Iran. 20 21 The earliest evidence of a grape-based fermented drink was found in China (c. . 7000 bc 9 10 11 georgia from 6000 bc, iran from 5000 bc, 6 and Sicily from 4000. 8 The earliest evidence of a wine production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old. Detail of a relief of the eastern stairs of the Apadana, persepolis, depicting Armenians bringing an amphora, probably of wine, to the king.
Many countries enact legal appellations thesis intended to define styles and qualities of wine. These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, cherry, pomegranate and elderberry. Wine has been produced for thousands of years. The earliest known traces of wine are from. 6000 bc 2 3 4 5 Iran (c. . 5000 bc 6 7 and Sicily (c. . 4000 BC) 8 although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic beverage being consumed earlier in China (c. . 9 10 11 The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery in Armenia.
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This article is about the beverage. For other uses, see. For a topical guide to this subject, see. Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients. 1, yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce supermarket different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, and the production process.