pothen, Phil (2009 disinformation as a back door to 'constitutional revolution' in Canada, toronto: Ontario bar Association, retrieved September 13, 2010 forsey, eugene (2005 how Canadians govern Themselves (PDF) (6. Ottawa: queen's Printer for Canada,. . 34, isbn, archived from the original (PDF) on January 15, 2011, retrieved December 9, 2009 forsey, eugene (March 2012). "How Canadians govern Themselves the Prime minister". Retrieved november 26, 2015. a b Forsey 2005,. .
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"Intergovernmental Affairs about Canada the canadian Constitution". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved June 7, 2010. Elizabeth ii (March 29, story 1867 constitution Act, 1982, schedB.37.1, Ottawa: queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved June 7, 2010 george vi (1947). Letters Patent Constituting the Office of governor General of Canada. Ottawa: King's Printer for Canada (published October 1, 1947). Retrieved may 29, 2009. Office of the governor General of Canada. "Media fact Sheets the Swearing-In of a new Ministry". Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. Retrieved may 18, 2009.
Pearson, who acted as Chancellor of Carleton University ; 66 joe clark and Kim Campbell, who became university professors, general Clark also consultant and Campbell working in international diplomacy and as the director of private companies and chairperson of interest groups; while pierre Trudeau and jean. 67 Former prime ministers also commonly penned autobiographies—Tupper, 63 for example—or published their memoirs—such as diefenbaker and paul Martin. 61 see also edit references edit a b c "Indemnities, salaries and Allowances". Archived from the original on June 1, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2017. Canadian Democracy: An Introduction (5.). Don Mills: Oxford University Press. a b Brooks 2007,. . 235 Privy council Office.
The term does not apply to incumbent prime ministers. Activities post-commission edit After exiting office, former prime ministers of Canada have engaged in revelation various pursuits. Some remained in politics: Bowell continued to serve as a senator, Stephen Harper returned to the house of Commons as a backbench Member of Parliament, and Bennett moved to the United Kingdom after being elevated to the house of Lords. 59 A number led Her Majesty's loyal Opposition in the canadian parliament: John. Macdonald, Arthur meighen, mackenzie king, 60 and pierre Trudeau, all before being re-appointed as prime minister (Mackenzie king twice alexander Mackenzie and John diefenbaker, both prior to sitting as regular Members of Parliament until their deaths; 61 Wilfrid laurier dying while still in the post;. Laurent, 64 and John Turner, each before they returned to private business. Meighen was also appointed to the senate following his second period as prime minister, but resigned his seat to seek re-election and moved to private enterprise after failing to win a riding. 65 Following meighen into civilian life were: Robert Borden, who served as Chancellor of queen's and McGill Universities, as well as working in the financial sector; Lester.
The heraldic badge, referred to by the cha as the mark of the Prime ministership of Canada, 43 consists of four red maple leaves joined at the stem on a white field Argent four maple leaves conjoined in cross at the stem Gules the augmentation. To date, former prime ministers joe clark, 43 pierre Trudeau, 44 John Turner, 45 Brian Mulroney, 46 and Kim Campbell were granted arms with the augmentation. 47 Style of address edit kim Campbell, the 19th Prime minister of Canada (1993) and only female and British Columbia-born individual to hold the office canada continues the westminster tradition of using the title Prime minister when one is speaking to the federal head. 48 The written form of address for the prime minister should use his or her full parliamentary title: The right Honourable name, post-nominal letters, prime minister of Canada. However, while in the house of Commons during question Period, other members of parliament may address the prime minister as The right Honourable, member for prime minister's riding or simply The right Honourable Prime minister. 49 Former prime ministers retain the prefix The right Honourable for the remainder of their lives; should they remain sitting MPs, they may be referred as The right Honourable member for member's riding or by their portfolio title (if appointed to one as in The. In the decades following Confederation, it was common practice to refer to the prime minister as Premier of Canada, a custom that continued until the first World War, around the time of Robert Borden's premiership. While contemporary sources will still speak of early prime ministers of Canada as premier, the modern practice is such that the federal head of government is known almost exclusively as the prime minister, while the provincial heads of government are termed premiers (save for within. Prime minister-designate of Canada edit further information: Prime minister-designate The Prime ministerdesignate of Canada refers to the person who has been designated as the future prime minister by the governor General, after either winning a general election, forming a confidence and supply government, or forming.
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The royal Canadian mounted Police also furnish constant personal security for the prime minister and his or her family. All of the aforementioned is supplied by the queen-in-council through budgets approved by parliament, as essay is the prime minister's total annual compensation of cad 347,400. 1 The Prime minister's total compensation consists of the member of the house of Commons Basic Sessional Indemnity of cad172,400, the Prime minister Salary of cad172,400, and the Prime minister Car Allowance of cad2000. 1 Should a review serving or former prime minister die, he or she is accorded a state funeral, wherein their casket lies in state in the centre Block of Parliament Hill. 39 Only bowell and the viscount Bennett were given private funerals, bennett also being the only former Prime minister of Canada to die and be buried outside the country and Bowell the only whose funeral was not attended by politicians.
John Thompson also died outside canada, at Windsor Castle, where queen Victoria permitted his lying-in-state before his body was returned to canada for a state funeral in Halifax. 40 The mark of the Prime ministership of Canada, applied to the arms of prime ministers who pursue them In earlier years, it was traditional for the monarch to bestow a knighthood on newly appointed Canadian prime ministers. Accordingly, several carried the prefix Sir before their name; of the first eight premiers of Canada, only Alexander Mackenzie refused the honour of a knighthood from queen Victoria. Following the 1919 Nickle resolution, however, it was against non-binding policy for the sovereign to grant such honorific titles to canadians; the last prime minister to be knighted was Sir Robert Borden, who was premier at the time the nickle resolution was debated in the. Still, bennett was in 1941, six years after he stepped down as prime minister, elevated to the peerage by king george vi as Viscount Bennett, of Mickleham in the county of Surrey and of Calgary and Hopewell in the dominion of Canada. 41 42 The canadian Heraldic Authority (CHA) has granted former prime ministers an augmentation of honour on the personal coat of arms of those who pursued them.
Pierre Trudeau is credited with, throughout his tenure as prime minister between 19, consolidating power in the pmo, 18 which is itself filled by political and administrative staff selected at the prime minister's discretion and unaccountable to parliament. At the end of the 20th century and into the 21st, analysts—such as Jeffrey simpson, 19 Donald savoie, andrew coyne, 20 and John Gomery —argued that both parliament and the cabinet had become eclipsed by prime ministerial power; n 3 21 savoie wrote: "The canadian. 26 27 Former governor general Adrienne Clarkson alluded to what she saw as "an unspoken rivalry" that had developed between the prime minister and the Crown. 28 It has been theorized that such is the case in Canada as its parliament is less influential on the executive than in other countries with Westminster parliamentary systems ; particularly, canada has fewer MPs, a higher turnover rate of MPs after each election, and. 29 There do exist checks on the prime minister's power: the commons may revoke its confidence in an incumbent prime minister and Cabinet or caucus revolts can quickly bring down a serving premier and even mere threats of such action can persuade or compel.
The reform Act, 2014, 30 codifies the process by which a caucus may trigger a party leadership review and, if necessary, chose an interim leader, thereby making a prime minister more accountable to the mps in his or her party. Caucuses may choose to follow these rules, though the decision would be made by recorded vote, thereby subjecting the party's choice to public scrutiny. 31 The senate may delay or impede legislation put forward by the cabinet, such as when Brian Mulroney 's bill creating the goods and Services Tax (GST) came before the upper chamber and, given Canada's federal nature, the jurisdiction of the federal government is limited. Further, as executive power is constitutionally vested in the monarch, meaning the royal Prerogative belongs to the Crown and not to any of its ministers, the sovereign's supremacy over the prime minister in the constitutional order is thus seen as a "rebuff to the pretensions. N 4 near the end of her time as governor general, Adrienne Clarkson stated: "My constitutional role has lain in what are called 'reserve powers making sure that there is a prime minister and a government in place, and exercising the right 'to encourage,. Without really revealing any secrets, i can tell you that I have done all three." 37 Privileges edit 24 Sussex Drive, the official residence of the Prime minister of Canada Two official residences are provided to the prime minister— 24 Sussex Drive in Ottawa and. 38 For transportation, the prime minister is granted an armoured car and shared use of two official aircraft —a cc-150 Polaris for international flights and a challenger 601 for domestic trips.
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Should the prime minister's party achieve a minority while an opposition party wins a plurality (i.e., more seats than any other party but less than a majority the prime minister can attempt to maintain the confidence of the house by forming a coalition with other. This option was last entertained in 1925. Role and authority edit further information: queen's Privy council for Canada canada's Prime ministers during its first century. Because the prime minister is, in practice, the most politically powerful member of the canadian remote government, he or she is sometimes erroneously referred to as Canada's head of state, n 2 when, in fact, that post is held by the canadian monarch, represented by the. 16 The prime minister is, instead, the head of government and is responsible for advising the Crown on how to exercise the royal Prerogative and its executive powers, 3 which are governed by the constitution and its conventions. However, the function of the prime minister has evolved with increasing power. Today, as per the doctrines of constitutional monarchy, the advice given by the prime minister is ordinarily binding, meaning the prime minister effectively carries out those duties ascribed to the sovereign or governor general, leaving the latter to act in predominantly ceremonial fashions. 17 As such, the prime minister, supported by the Office of the Prime minister (pmo controls the appointments of many key figures in Canada's system of governance, including the governor general, the cabinet, justices of the supreme court, senators, heads of crown corporations, ambassadors. Further, the prime minister plays a prominent role in the legislative process—with the majority of bills put before parliament originating in the cabinet—and the leadership of the canadian Armed Forces.
In a poll conducted by Ipsos-reid following the first prorogation of the 40th parliament on December 4, 2008, it was found that 51 of the sample group thought the prime minister was directly elected by canadians. 12 13 Term of office edit The canadian prime minister serves at Her Majesty's pleasure, meaning the post does not have a fixed term. Once appointed and sworn in by the governor general, the prime minister remains in office until he or she resigns, is dismissed, or dies. 14 The lifespan of parliament was limited by the constitution to five years and, though the governor general may still, on the advice of the prime minister, dissolve parliament and issue the writs of election prior to the date mandated by the canada Elections Act. As of 2007, with an amendment to the Elections Act, section.1(2) was changed to limit the term of a majority government to four years, with election day being set as the third Monday in October of the fourth calendar year after the previous polling. 15 Following parliamentary dissolution, the prime minister must run in the resulting general election if he or she wishes to maintain a seat in the house of Commons. Should the prime minister's party subsequently win a majority of seats in the house of Commons, it is unnecessary to re-appoint the prime minister or again swear him or her into office. 14 If, however, an opposition party wins a majority of seats, the prime minister may resign or be dismissed by the governor general.
interim leader from the commons in such a scenario. Prime ministers who are not Members of Parliament upon their appointment (or who lose their seats while in office) have since been expected to seek election to the commons as soon as possible. For example, william lyon Mackenzie king, after losing his seat in the 1925 federal election (that his party won briefly "governed from the hallway" before winning a by-election a few weeks later. Similarly, john Turner replaced pierre Trudeau as leader of the liberal Party in 1984 and subsequently was appointed prime minister while not holding a seat in the house of Commons; Turner won a riding in the next election but the liberal Party was swept from. Turner was the last serving prime minister to not hold a commons seat. Macdonald, the first Prime minister of Canada (18671873, 18781891) Should a serving prime minister today lose his or her seat in the legislature, or should a new prime minister be appointed without holding a seat, the typical process that follows is that a junior member. 11 A safe seat is usually chosen; while the liberal and Conservative parties traditionally observed a convention of not running a candidate against another party's new leader in the by-election, the new Democrats and smaller political parties typically do not follow the same convention. However, if the governing party selects a new leader shortly before an election is due, and that new leader is not a member of the legislature, he or she will normally await the upcoming election before running for a seat in parliament.
Contents Origin of the office edit The position of prime minister is not outlined in any canadian constitutional document and is mentioned only in passing in the constitution Act, 1982, 4 5 and the letters Patent, 1947 issued by king george. 6 The office and its functions are instead governed by constitutional conventions and modelled on the same office in the United Kingdom. Qualifications and selection edit The prime minister, along with the other ministers in cabinet, is appointed by the governor general on behalf of the monarch. 7 However, by the conventions of responsible government, designed to maintain administrative stability, the governor general will call to form a government the individual most likely to receive the support, or confidence, of a majority of the directly elected members of the house of Commons. 9 While there is no legal requirement for the prime minister to be a member of parliament, for practical and political reasons the prime minister is expected to win a seat very promptly. 10 However, in rare circumstances individuals who are not sitting members of the house of Commons have been appointed to the position of prime minister. Two former prime ministers—Sir John resumes Joseph Caldwell Abbott and Sir Mackenzie bowell —served in the 1890s while members of the senate.
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This article is about the position of Prime minister of Canada. For individual Canadian prime ministers, see. List of Prime ministers of Canada. The, prime minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du canada ) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the, cabinet, and summary thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the, canadian monarch. Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution. 2, not outlined in any constitutional document, the office exists only as per long-established convention (originating in Canada's former colonial power, the United Kingdom) that stipulates the monarch's representative, the governor general, must select as prime minister the person most likely to command the confidence. N 1 3, canadian prime ministers are styled as, the right Honourable (French: le très Honorable a privilege maintained for life. The current, and 23rd, Prime minister of Canada is the. Liberal Party 's, justin Trudeau, who was appointed on november 4, 2015, by governor General david Johnston, following the general election that took place that year.